, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 1811–1823 | Cite as

A bio-based multi-functional composite film based on graphene and lotus fiber

  • Cheng Cheng
  • Ronghui GuoEmail author
  • Lin Tan
  • Jianwu Lan
  • Shouxiang Jiang
  • Zoufei Du
  • Ludan Zhao
Original Research


It is promising to fabricate renewable and flexible electronic devices due to increasing awareness of sustainable development of environmental-friendly materials. Flexible and renewable bio-based composite film (GLFF) based on graphene and lotus fiber (LF) was prepared by adding graphene into the mixture solution of lotus fiber and ionic liquid. The GLFFs show high electrical conductivity, remarkable electrochemical performance, excellent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) and ability to generate heat. The surface resistance of GLFF reaches 19.01 Ω sq−1. The EMI SE of GLFF arrives at 30 dB at the frequency ranging from 1 to 18 GHz. In addition, the surface temperature of GLFF reaches 46.5 °C when only 7 V was applied on GLFF surface. The area capacitance of the GLFF is 1088.7 mF cm−2. GLFF can maintain a specific capacitance of 85% of initial capacitance after 500 cycles. The influences of graphene content on mechanical property, sheet resistance, heat generation, EMI SE and electrochemical performance of GLFFs were investigated. GLFF, as renewable electrical materials, can be potentially applied in the fields of energy storage, electromagnetic shielding and heat generation.

Graphical abstract


Graphene Cellulose Lotus fiber Ionic liquid Electromagnetic shielding Electrochemical performance 



This work was financially supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51203099).

Supplementary material

10570_2018_2160_MOESM1_ESM.xls (94 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 95 kb)
10570_2018_2160_MOESM2_ESM.doc (16.6 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 16964 kb)


  1. Beguin F, Szostak K, Lota G, Frackowiak E (2005) A self-supporting electrode for supercapacitors prepared by one-step pyrolysis of carbonnanotube/polyacrylonitrile blends. Adv Mater 17:2380–2384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheng C-C, Liao Z-S, Huang J-J, Huang S-Y, Fan W-L (2017a) Incorporation of supramolecular polymer-functionalized graphene: towards the development of bio-based high electrically conductive polymeric nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 148:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng C, Guo R, Lan J, Jiang S (2017b) Extraction of lotus fibres from lotus stems under microwave irradiation. R Soc Open Sci 4:170747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cho Kyung-Su, Kim Eunah, Kimb Dong-Wook, Kim H-K (2017) Highly flexible and semi-transparent Ag–Cu alloy electrodes for high performance flexible thin film heaters. RSC Adv 7:45484–45494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Choi HY, Lee T-W, Lee S-E, Lim J, Jeong YG (2017) Silver nanowire/carbon nanotube/cellulose hybrid papers for electrically conductive and electromagnetic interference shielding elements. Compos Sci Technol 150:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi D-C, Kim M, Song YJ, Hussain S, Song W-S, An K-S, Jung J (2018) Selective AuCl3 doping of graphene for reducing contact resistance of graphene devices. Appl Surf Sci 427:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Coroş M, Pogăcean F, Măgeruşan L, Roşu M-C, Porav AS, Socaci C, Bende A, Stefan-van Staden R-I, Pruneanu S (2018) Graphene-porphyrin composite synthesis through graphite exfoliation: the electrochemical sensing of catechol. Sensor Actuat B Chem 256:665–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Derkacheva OY (2015) Determination of cellulose fiber structure using IR reflectance spectroscopy of paper. J Appl Spectrosc 81:1037–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dyatkin B, Presser V, Heon M, Lukatskaya MR, Beidaghi M, Gogotsi Y (2013) Development of a green supercapacitor composed entirely of environmentally friendly materials. Chemsuschem 6:2269–2280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fu R, Ji X, Ren Y, Wang G, Cheng B (2017) Antibacterial blend films of cellulose and chitosan prepared from binary ionic liquid system. Fiber Polym 18:852–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gama N, Costa LC, Amaral V, Ferreira A, Barros-Timmons A (2017) Insights into the physical properties of biobased polyurethane/expanded graphite composite foams. Compos Sci Technol 138:24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gnana Sundara Raj B, Bhuvaneshwari S, Wu JJ, Asiri AM, Anandan S (2018) Sonochemical synthesis of Co2SnO4 nanocubes for supercapacitor applications. Ultrason Sonochem 41:435–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gong Y, Han GT, Zhang YM, Zhang JF, Jiang W, Pan Y (2015) Research on the degradation performance of the lotus nanofibers-alginate porous materials. Polym Degrad Stab 118:104–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hu L, Choi JW, Yang Y, Jeong S, La Mantia F, Cui LF, Cui Y (2009) Highly conductive paper for energy-storage devices. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:21490–21494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Islam N, Warzywoda J, Fan Z (2017) Edge-oriented graphene on carbon nanofiber for high-frequency supercapacitors. Nano-Micro Lett 10Google Scholar
  16. Kafy A, Akther A, Zhai L, Kim HC, Kim J (2017) Porous cellulose/graphene oxide nanocomposite as flexible and renewable electrode material for supercapacitor. Synth Met 223:94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kavitha SR, Umadevi M, Janani SR, Balakrishnan T, Ramanibai R (2014) Fluorescence quenching and photocatalytic degradation of textile dyeing waste water by silver nanoparticles. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 127:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim K-W, Kim JH, Cho S, Shin K, Kim SH (2017) Scalable high-performance graphene paper with enhanced electrical and mechanical properties. Thin Solid Films 632:50–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kuok F-H, Chien H-H, Lee C-C, Hao Y-C, Yu I-S, Hsu C-C, Cheng IC, Chen J-Z (2018) Atmospheric-pressure-plasma-jet processed carbon nanotube (CNT)–reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites for gel-electrolyte supercapacitors. RSC Adv 8:2851–2857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li J, Yuan Q, Qiu H, Yang J (2017) Effect of silver decorated graphene oxide on the PEDOT:PSS-matrix composite films. J Polym Res 25Google Scholar
  21. Li Y, Guo S, Yang H, Chao Y, Jiang S, Wang C (2018a) One-step synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires of over 100 μm and their application in flexible transparent conductive films. RSC Adv 8:8057–8063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li Y, Li J, Li Y, Li Y, Song Y, Niu S, Li N (2018b) Ultrasonic-assisted preparation of graphene oxide carboxylic acid polyvinyl alcohol polymer film and studies of thermal stability and surface resistivity. Ultrason Sonochem 40:798–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu C, Li F, Ma LP, Cheng HM (2010) Advanced materials for energy storage. Adv Mater 22:E28–E62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu M, Huang B, Gou L, Hou Z, Zhang P (2018) Nanocrystalline cellulose-functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and their composite papers. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 18:3239–3247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Luong ND, Pahimanolis N, Hippi U, Korhonen JT, Ruokolainen J, Johansson L-S, Nam J-D, Seppälä J (2011) Graphene/cellulose nanocomposite paper with high electrical and mechanical performances. J Mater Chem 21:13991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lv X, Li G, Zhou H, Li D, Zhang J, Pang Z, Lv P, Cai Y, Huang F, Wei Q (2018) Novel freestanding N-doped carbon coated Fe3O4 nanocomposites with 3D carbon fibers network derived from bacterial cellulose for supercapacitor application. J Electroanal Chem 810:18–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mondal S, Ganguly S, Das P, Bhawal P, Das TK, Nayak L, Khastgir D, Das NC (2017) High-performance carbon nanofiber coated cellulose filter paper for electromagnetic interference shielding. Cellulose 24:5117–5131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Montes S, Etxeberria A, Mocholi V, Rekondo A, Grande H, Labidi J (2018) Effect of combining cellulose nanocrystals and graphene nanoplatelets on the properties of poly(lactic acid) based films. Express Polym Lett 12:543–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pan Y, Han G, Mao Z, Zhang Y, Duan H, Huang J, Qu L (2011) Structural characteristics and physical properties of lotus fibers obtained from Nelumbo nucifera petioles. Carbohydr Polym 85:188–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reddy N, Yang Y (2009) Properties of natural cellulose fibers from hop stems. Carbohydr Polym 77:898–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reddy KO, Maheswari CU, Dhlamini MS, Mothudi BM, Zhang J, Zhang J, Nagarajan R, Rajulu AV (2017) Preparation and characterization of regenerated cellulose films using borassus fruit fibers and an ionic liquid. Carbohydr Polym 160:203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Suominen M, Damlin P, Granroth S, Kvarnström C (2018) Improved long term cycling of polyazulene/reduced graphene oxide composites fabricated in a choline based ionic liquid. Carbon 128:205–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wan C, Jiao Y, Li J (2017) Flexible, highly conductive, and free-standing reduced graphene oxide/polypyrrole/cellulose hybrid papers for supercapacitor electrodes. J Mater Chem A 5:3819–3831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang Y, Shi Z, Huang Y, Ma Yanfeng, Wang C, Chen M, Chen Y (2009) Supercapacitor devices based on graphene materials. J Phys Chem C 113:13103–13107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang Z, Tammela P, Strømme M, Nyholm L (2017) Cellulose-based supercapacitors: material and performance considerations. Adv Energy Mater 7Google Scholar
  36. Wang X-X, Ma T, Shu J-C, Cao M-S (2018a) Confinedly tailoring Fe3O4 clusters-NG to tune electromagnetic parameters and microwave absorption with broadened bandwidth. Chem Eng J 332:321–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang X, Feng Z, Huang J, Deng W, Li X, Zhang H, Wen Z (2018b) Graphene-decorated carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanospheres as a high-performance cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Carbon 127:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Weng Z, Su Y, Wang D-W, Li F, Du J, Cheng H-M (2011) Graphene-cellulose paper flexible supercapacitors. Adv Energy Mater 1:917–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wu M, Shuai H, Cheng Q, Jiang L (2014) Bioinspired green composite lotus fibers. Angew Chem Int Ed 53:3358–3361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xing L-L, Huang K-J, Cao S-X, Pang H (2018) Chestnut shell-like Li4Ti5O12 hollow spheres for high-performance aqueous asymmetric supercapacitors. Chem Eng J 332:253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yim Y-J, Park S-J (2015) Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of high-density polyethylene composites reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J Ind Eng Chem 21:155–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. You J, Li M, Ding B, Wu X, Li C (2017) Crab chitin-based 2D soft nanomaterials for fully biobased electric devices. Adv Mater 29Google Scholar
  43. Zhang H, Wu J, Zhang J, He J (2005) 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride room temperature ionic liquid: a new and powerful nonderivatizing solvent for cellulose. Macromolecules 38:8272–8277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang J, Luo N, Wan J, Xia G, Yu J, He J, Zhang J (2017) Directly converting agricultural straw into all-biomass nanocomposite films reinforced with additional in situ-retained cellulose nanocrystals. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 5:5127–5133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhou Y, Wen Q, Ren Z, Xie H, Tao S, Zhou W (2018) Gadolinium-doped strontium titanate for high-efficiency electromagnetic interference shielding. J Alloy Compd 733:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhu Y, Murali S, Cai W, Li X, Suk JW, Potts JR, Ruoff RS (2010) Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications. Adv Mater 22:3906–3924CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheng Cheng
    • 1
  • Ronghui Guo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lin Tan
    • 1
  • Jianwu Lan
    • 1
  • Shouxiang Jiang
    • 2
  • Zoufei Du
    • 1
  • Ludan Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Light Industry, Textile and Food EngineeringSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.Institute of Textiles and Clothing, the Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityKowloon, Hong KongChina

Personalised recommendations