, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 7393–7407 | Cite as

Polypyrrole-coated cotton fabric decorated with silver nanoparticles for the catalytic removal of p-nitrophenol from water

  • Mohamad M. AyadEmail author
  • Wael A. Amer
  • Sawsan Zaghlol
  • Nela Maráková
  • Jaroslav Stejskal
Original Paper


The development of new catalytic transformations with easy separation and recyclability is essential in chemical synthesis. An efficient heterogeneous catalytic system composed of a conducting polymer, polypyrrole (PPy), deposited on cotton fabric support, and decorated with silver nanoparticles is described. Such ternary composites can be used in environmental issues, such as water-pollution treatment. The model reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol with sodium borohydride was investigated by means of UV–visible spectroscopy. The reaction was catalyzed even by PPy alone and the catalytic effect was strongly enhanced by silver nanoparticles. It obeys the first-order kinetics. The catalytic effect increases with the catalyst dose due to increased number of catalytic sites. This also applies to the increased content of silver. The elevated temperature as well as the reduced polarity of the reaction medium have negative effect on the catalyst performance. The catalysts can be reused several times while maintaining good efficiency. The ternary composites are thus good candidates for the catalytic reductive removal of toxic compounds from water.


Catalytic reduction Silver nanoparticles Polypyrrole Cotton fabric Negative activation energy 



The authors thank the Tanta University and the Czech Science Foundation (17-05095S) for support.


  1. Akbarzadeh E, Falamarzi M, Gholami MR (2017) Synthesis of M/CuO (M = Ag, Au) from Cu based metal organic frameworks for efficient catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol. Mater Chem Phys 198:374–379Google Scholar
  2. Aledo JC, Jiménez-Riveres S, Tena M (2010) The effect of temperature on the enzyme-catalyzed reaction: insights from thermodynamics. J Chem Educ 87:296–298Google Scholar
  3. Anderson SR, Mohammadtaheri M, Kumar D, O’Mullane AP, Field MR, Ramanathan R, Bansal V (2016) Robust nanostructured silver and copper fabrics with localized surface plasmon resonance property for effective visible light induced reductive catalysis. Adv Mater Interfaces 3:1500632Google Scholar
  4. Ansari R (2006) Polypyrrole conducting electroactive polymers: synthesis and stability studies. J Chem 3:186–201Google Scholar
  5. Ataee-Esfahani H, Wang L, Nemoto Y, Yamauchi Y (2010) Synthesis of bimetallic Au@ Pt nanoparticles with Au core and nanostructured Pt shell toward highly active electrocatalysts. J Mater Chem 22:6310–6318Google Scholar
  6. Ayad MM, Prastomo N, Matsuda A, Stejskal J (2010) Sensing of silver ions by nanotubular polyaniline film deposited on quartz-crystal in a microbalance. Synth Met 160:42–46Google Scholar
  7. Ayad MM, Amer WA, Kotp MG, Minisy IM, Rehab AF, Kopecký D, Fitl P (2017) Synthesis of silver-anchored polyaniline–chitosan magnetic nanocomposite: a smart system for catalysis. RSC Adv 7:18553–18560Google Scholar
  8. Ayad MM, Amer WA, Zaghlol S, Minisy IM, Bober P, Stejskal J (2018) Polypyrrole-coated cotton textile as adsorbent of methylene blue dye. Chem Pap 72:1–14Google Scholar
  9. Azak H, Kurbanoglu S, Yildiz HB, Ozkan SA (2016) Electrochemical glucose biosensing via new generation DTP type conducting polymers/gold nanoparticles/glucose oxidase modified electrodes. J Electroanal Chem 770:90–97Google Scholar
  10. Bajgar V, Penhaker M, Martinková L, Pavlovič A, Bober P, Trchová M, Stejskal J (2016) Cotton fabric coated with conducting polymers and its application in monitoring of carnivorous plant response. Sensors 16:498Google Scholar
  11. Balint R, Cassidy NJ, Cartmell SH (2014) Conductive polymers: towards a smart biomaterial for tissue engineering. Acta Biomater 10:2341–2353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bard AJ, Parsons R, Jordan J (eds) (1985) Standard potentials in aqueous solution. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Bedjanian Y, Laverdet G, Le Bras G (1998) Low-pressure study of the reaction of Cl atoms with isoprene. J Phys Chem A 102:953–959Google Scholar
  14. Bethke K, Kung HH (1997) Supported Ag catalysts for the lean reduction of NO with C3H6. J Catal 172:93–102Google Scholar
  15. Blinova NV, Stejskal J, Trchová M, Prokeš J, Omastová M (2007) Polyaniline and polypyrrole: A comparative study of the preparation. Eur Polym J 43:2331–2341Google Scholar
  16. Bo Y, Zhao Y, Cai Z, Bahi A, Liu C, Ko F (2018) Facile synthesis of flexible electrode based on cotton/polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite for supercapacitors. Cellulose 25:4079–4091Google Scholar
  17. Bober P, Stejskal J, Šeděnková I, Trchová M, Martinková L, Marek J (2015) The deposition of globular polypyrrole and polypyrrole nanotubes on cotton textile. Appl Surf Sci 356:737–741Google Scholar
  18. Bollenbach M, Wagner P, Aquino PG, Bourguignon JJ, Bihel F, Salomé C, Schmitt M (2016) d-Glucose: an efficient reducing agent for a copper(II)-mediated arylation of primary amines in water. Chemsuschem 9:3244–3249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bolto BA, McNeill R, Weiss D (1963) Electronic conduction in polymers. III. Electronic properties of polypyrrole. Aust J Chem 16:1090–1103Google Scholar
  20. Bond GC, Thompson DT (1999) Catalysis by gold. Cat Rev 41:319–388Google Scholar
  21. Bose C, Rajeshwar K (1992) Efficient electrocatalyst assemblies for proton and oxygen reduction: the electrosynthesis and characterization of polypyrrole films containing nanodispersed platinum particles. J Electroanal Chem 333:235–256Google Scholar
  22. Bowers GN, McComb RB, Christensen R, Schaffer R (1980) High-purity 4-nitrophenol: purification, characterization, and specifications for use as a spectrophotometric reference material. Clin Chem 26:724–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bryan AM, Santino LM, Lu Y, Acharya S, D’Arcy JM (2016) Conducting polymers for pseudocapacitive energy storage. Chem Mater 28:5989–5998Google Scholar
  24. Cabuk M, Alan Y, Yavuz M, Unal HI (2014) Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of biodegradable conducting polypyrrole–graft–chitosan copolymer. Appl Surf Sci 318:168–175Google Scholar
  25. Chen M, Goodman D (2004) The structure of catalytically active gold on titania. Science 306:252–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chen A, Holt-Hindle P (2010) Platinum-based nanostructured materials: synthesis, properties, and applications. Chem Rev 110:3767–3804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Choudhary M, Islam RU, Witcomb MJ, Mallick K (2014) In situ generation of a high-performance Pd-polypyrrole composite with multi-functional catalytic properties. Dalton Trans 43:6396–6405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chunfa D, Xianglin Z, Hao C, Chuanliang C (2016) Sodium alginate mediated route for the synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles using glucose as reducing agents. Rare Metal Mater Eng 45:261–266Google Scholar
  29. Crawford RL (1981) Lignin biodegradation and transformation. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Davis D, Huie R, Herron J (1973) Direct rate measurements showing negative temperature dependence for reaction of atomic oxygen with cis-2-butene and tetramethylethylene. J Chem Phys 59:628–634Google Scholar
  31. Dimeska R, Murray PS, Ralph SF, Wallace GG (2006) Electroless recovery of silver by inherently conducting polymer powders, membranes and composite materials. Polymer 47:4520–4530Google Scholar
  32. Dimeska R, Little S, Ralph SF, Wallace GG (2007) Platinum recovery using inherently conducting polymers and common fabrics. Fiber Polym 8:463–469Google Scholar
  33. Dreaden EC, Alkilany AM, Huang X, Murphy CJ, El-Sayed MA (2012) The golden age: gold nanoparticles for biomedicine. Chem Soc Rev 41:2740–2779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Eren S (2018) Photocatalytic hydrogen peroxide bleaching of cotton. Cellulose 25:3679–3689Google Scholar
  35. Feng X, Mao C, Yang G, Hou W, Zhu J-J (2006) Polyaniline/Au composite hollow spheres: synthesis, characterization, and application to the detection of dopamine. Langmuir 22:4384–4389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Feng W, Huang T, Gao L, Yang X, Deng W, Zhou R, Liu H (2018) Textile-supported silver nanoparticles as a highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for nitroaromatic reduction at room temperature. RSC Adv 8:6288–6292Google Scholar
  37. French AD (2014) Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs. Cellulose 21:885–896Google Scholar
  38. French AD, Cintrón MS (2013) Cellulose polymorphy, crystallite size, and the Segal crystallinity index. Cellulose 20:583–588Google Scholar
  39. Gaffney J, Atkinson R, Pitts J Jr (1975) Temperature dependence of the relative rate constants for the reaction of oxygen (3P) atoms with selected olefins, monoterpenes, and unsaturated aldehydes. J Am Chem Soc 97:6481–6483Google Scholar
  40. Gao C, Chen G (2016) Conducting polymer/carbon particle thermoelectric composites: emerging green energy materials. Compos Sci Technol 124:52–70Google Scholar
  41. Gemal AL, Luche JL (1981) Lanthanoids in organic synthesis. 6. Reduction of. alpha.-enones by sodium borohydride in the presence of lanthanoid chlorides: synthetic and mechanistic aspects. J Am Chem Soc 103:5454–5459Google Scholar
  42. Georgievskii Y, Klippenstein SJ (2007) Strange kinetics of the C2H6 + CN reaction explained. J Phys Chem A 111:3802–3811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Guo S, Dong S, Wang E (2009) Polyaniline/Pt hybrid nanofibers: high-efficiency nanoelectrocatalysts for electrochemical devices. Small 5:1869–1876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gupta VK, Atar N, Yola ML, Üstündağ Z, Uzun L (2014) A novel magnetic Fe@Au core–shell nanoparticles anchored graphene oxide recyclable nanocatalyst for the reduction of nitrophenol compounds. Water Res 48:210–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Guzman J, Gates BC (2004) Catalysis by supported gold: correlation between catalytic activity for CO oxidation and oxidation states of gold. J Am Chem Soc 126:2672–2673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Habibi Y (2014) Key advances in the chemical modification of nanocelluloses. Chem Soc Rev 43:1519–1542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. He W, Liu J, Qiao Y, Zou Z, Zhang X, Akins DL, Yang H (2010) Simple preparation of Pd–Pt nanoalloy catalysts for methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction. J Power Sources 195:1046–1050Google Scholar
  48. Hu W, Liu B, Wang Q, Liu Y, Liu Y, Jing P, Yu S, Liu L, Zhang J (2013) A magnetic double-shell microsphere as a highly efficient reusable catalyst for catalytic applications. Chem Commun 49:7596–7598Google Scholar
  49. Hu H, Xin JH, Hu H, Wang X, Miao D, Liu Y (2015) Synthesis and stabilization of metal nanocatalysts for reduction reactions—a review. J Mater Chem A 3:11157–11182Google Scholar
  50. Huang F, Zhang Y, Liu MS, Jen AKY (2009) Electron-rich alcohol-soluble neutral conjugated polymers as highly efficient electron-injecting materials for polymer light-emitting diodes. Adv Funct Mater 19:2457–2466Google Scholar
  51. Huang T et al (2018) Fast and cost-effective preparation of antimicrobial zinc oxide embedded in activated carbon composite for water purification applications. Mater Chem Phys 206:124–129Google Scholar
  52. Imamura S, Ikebata M, Ito T, Ogita T (1991) Decomposition of ozone on a silver catalyst. Ind Eng Chem Res 30:217–221Google Scholar
  53. Jakobs R, Janssen L, Barendrecht E (1985) Oxygen reduction at polypyrrole electrodes—II. Experimental results. Electrochim Acta 30:1433–1439Google Scholar
  54. Jeyabharathi C, Venkateshkumar P, Mathiyarasu J, Phani K (2010) Carbon-supported palladium–polypyrrole nanocomposite for oxygen reduction and its tolerance to methanol. J Electrochem Soc 157:B1740–B1745Google Scholar
  55. Jiang Z, Xie J, Jiang D, Wei X, Chen M (2013) Modifiers-assisted formation of nickel nanoparticles and their catalytic application to p-nitrophenol reduction. CrystEngComm 15:560–569Google Scholar
  56. Jiang B, Li C, Malgras V, Imura M, Tominaka S, Yamauchi Y (2016) Mesoporous Pt nanospheres with designed pore surface as highly active electrocatalyst. Chem Sci 7:1575–1581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jing S, Xing S, Yu L, Zhao C (2007) Synthesis and characterization of Ag/polypyrrole nanocomposites based on silver nanoparticles colloid. Mater Lett 61:4528–4530Google Scholar
  58. Johnstone RA, Wilby AH, Entwistle ID (1985) Heterogeneous catalytic transfer hydrogenation and its relation to other methods for reduction of organic compounds. Chem Rev 85:129–170Google Scholar
  59. Joulazadeh M, Navarchian AH (2015) Polypyrrole nanotubes versus nanofibers: a proposed mechanism for predicting the final morphology. Synth Met 199:37–44Google Scholar
  60. Karim MR, Lim KT, Lee CJ, Bhuiyan MTI, Kim HJ, Park LS, Lee MS (2007) Synthesis of core-shell silver–polyaniline nanocomposites by gamma radiolysis method. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45:5741–5747Google Scholar
  61. Karim MN, Anderson SR, Singh S, Ramanathan R, Bansal V (2018) Nanostructured silver fabric as a free-standing NanoZyme for colorimetric detection of glucose in urine. Biosens Bioelectron 110:8–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Knyazev VD, Kalinovski IJ, Slagle IR (1999) Kinetics of the CH2CH2Cl⇄ C2H4 + Cl reaction. J Phys Chem A 103:3216–3221Google Scholar
  63. Ko SH, Park I, Pan H, Grigoropoulos CP, Pisano AP, Luscombe CK, Fréchet JM (2007) Direct nanoimprinting of metal nanoparticles for nanoscale electronics fabrication. Nano Lett 7:1869–1877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kondratiev VV, Malev VV, Eliseeva SN (2016) Composite electrode materials based on conducting polymers loaded with metal nanostructures. Russ Chem Rev 85:14Google Scholar
  65. Kumar R, Oves M, Ameelbi T, Al-Makishah NH, Barakat M (2016) Hybrid chitosan/polyaniline–polypyrrole biomaterial for enhanced adsorption and antimicrobial activity. J Colloid Interface Sci 490:488–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Levenspiel O (1999) Chemical reaction engineering. Ind Eng Chem Res 38:4140–4143Google Scholar
  67. Li Y, Cheng X, Leung M, Tsang J, Tao X, Yuen M (2005a) A flexible strain sensor from polypyrrole-coated fabrics. Synth Met 155:89–94Google Scholar
  68. Li Y, Leung M, Tao X, Cheng X, Tsang J, Yuen M (2005b) Polypyrrole-coated conductive fabrics as a candidate for strain sensors. J Mater Sci 40:4093–4095Google Scholar
  69. Li H, Sun G, Li N, Sun S, Su D, Xin Q (2007a) Design and preparation of highly active Pt–Pd/C catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. J Phys Chem C 111:5605–5617Google Scholar
  70. Li Y-P, Cao H-B, Liu C-M, Zhang Y (2007b) Electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene at carbon nanotube electrode. J Hazard Mater 148:158–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Li C, Sato T, Yamauchi Y (2013) Electrochemical synthesis of one-dimensional mesoporous Pt nanorods using the assembly of surfactant micelles in confined space. Angew Chem 125:8208–8211Google Scholar
  72. Liu F, Yuan Y, Li L, Shang S, Yu X, Zhang Q, Jiang S, Wua Y (2015a) Synthesis of polypyrrole nanocomposites decorated with silver nanoparticles with electrocatalysis and antibacterial property. Compos B 69:232–236Google Scholar
  73. Liu J, Wang J, Yu X, Li L, Shang S (2015b) One-pot synthesis of polypyrrole/AgCl composite nanotubes and their antibacterial properties. Micro Nano Lett 10:50–53Google Scholar
  74. Lu X, Zhang W, Wang C, Wen T-C, Wei Y (2011) One-dimensional conducting polymer nanocomposites: synthesis, properties and applications. Prog Polym Sci 36:671–712Google Scholar
  75. Lu Y, He W, Cao T, Guo H, Zhang Y, Li Q, Shao Z, Cui Y, Zhang X (2014) Elastic, conductive, polymeric hydrogels and sponges. Sci Rep 4:5792PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Ma Y, Jiang S, Jian G, Tao H, Yu L, Wang X, Wang X, Zhu J, Hu Z, Chen Y (2009) CNx nanofibers converted from polypyrrole nanowires as platinum support for methanol oxidation. Energy Environ Sci 2:224–229Google Scholar
  77. Mao L, Li M, Xue J, Wang J (2016) Bendable graphene/conducting polymer hybrid films for freestanding electrodes with high volumetric capacitances. RSC Adv 6:2951–2957Google Scholar
  78. Maráková N, Humpolíček P, Kašpárková V, Capáková Z, Martinková L, Bober P, Trchová M, Stejskal J (2017) Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of cotton fabric coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, and with deposited silver nanoparticles. Appl Surf Sci 396:169–176Google Scholar
  79. Mullen C, Smith MA (2005) Low Temperature NH (X 3Σ-) radical reactions with NO, saturated, and unsaturated hydrocarbons studied in a pulsed supersonic Laval nozzle flow reactor between 53 and 188 K. J Phys Chem A 109:1391–1399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Murphy CJ, Sau TK, Gole AM, Orendorff CJ, Gao J, Gou L, Hunyadi SE, Li T (2005) Anisotropic metal nanoparticles: synthesis, assembly, and optical applications. J Phys Chem B 109:13857–13870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Narayanan R, El-Sayed MA (2005) Carbon-supported spherical palladium nanoparticles as potential recyclable catalysts for the Suzuki reaction. J Catal 234:348–355Google Scholar
  82. Nascimento TA, Dutra FVA, Pires BC, Tarley CRT, Mano V, Borges KB (2016) Preparation and characterization of a composite based on polyaniline, polypyrrole and cigarette filters: adsorption studies and kinetics of phenylbutazone in aqueous media. RSC Adv 6:64450–64459Google Scholar
  83. Nguyen DN, Yoon H (2016) Recent advances in nanostructured conducting polymers: from synthesis to practical applications. Polymers 8:118Google Scholar
  84. Nie T, Wu H, Wong K-H, Chen T (2016) Facile synthesis of highly uniform selenium nanoparticles using glucose as the reductant and surface decorator to induce cancer cell apoptosis. J Mater Chem B 4:2351–2358Google Scholar
  85. Omastová M, Mičušík M (2012) Polypyrrole coating of inorganic and organic materials by chemical oxidative polymerisation. Chem Pap 66:392–414Google Scholar
  86. Omastova M, Trchová M, Kovářová J, Stejskal J (2003) Synthesis and structural study of polypyrroles prepared in the presence of surfactants. Synth Met 138:447–455Google Scholar
  87. Peng X, Zhang W, Gai L, Jiang H, Wang Y, Zhao L (2015) Dedoped Fe3O4/PPy nanocomposite with high anti-interfering ability for effective separation of Ag(I) from mixed metal–ion solution. Chem Eng J 280:197–205Google Scholar
  88. Pestryakov AN (1996) Modification of silver catalysts for oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Catal Today 28:239–244Google Scholar
  89. Pittelkow M, Moth-Poulsen K, Boas U, Christensen JB (2003) Poly(amidoamine)-dendrimer-stabilized Pd (0) nanoparticles as a catalyst for the Suzuki reaction. Langmuir 19:7682–7684Google Scholar
  90. Pradhan N, Pal A, Pal T (2002) Silver nanoparticle catalyzed reduction of aromatic nitro compounds. Colloids Surf A 196:247–257Google Scholar
  91. Pratt CW, Cornely K (2017) Essential Biochemistry, 4th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. Quignard F, Choplin A (2001) Cellulose: a new bio-support for aqueous phase catalysts. Chem Commun 1:21–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ramanathan R, Kandjani AE, Walia S, Balendhran S, Bhargava SK, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Bansal V (2013) 3-D nanorod arrays of metal–organic KTCNQ semiconductor on textiles for flexible organic electronics. RSC Adv 3:17654–17658Google Scholar
  94. Ramanathan R, Walia S, Kandjani AE, Balendran S, Mohammadtaheri M, Bhargava SK, Kalantar-zadeh K, Bansal V (2015) Low-temperature fabrication of alkali metal–organic charge transfer complexes on cotton textile for optoelectronics and gas sensing. Langmuir 31:1581–1587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Reichardt C, Welton T (2011) Solvents and solvent effects in organic chemistry. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  96. Revell LE, Williamson BE (2013) Why are some reactions slower at higher temperatures? J Chem Educ 90:1024–1027Google Scholar
  97. Rodríguez FJ, Gutiérrez S, Ibanez JG, Bravo JL, Batina N (2000) The efficiency of toxic chromate reduction by a conducting polymer (polypyrrole): influence of electropolymerization conditions. Environ Sci Technol 34:2018–2023Google Scholar
  98. Saha K, Agasti SS, Kim C, Li X, Rotello VM (2012) Gold nanoparticles in chemical and biological sensing. Chem Rev 112:2739–2779PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Sapurina I, Stejskal J, Šeděnková I, Trchová M, Kovářová J, Hromádková J, Kopecká J, Cieslar M, Abu El-Nasr A, Ayad M (2016) Catalytic activity of polypyrrole nanotubes decorated with noble-metal nanoparticles and their conversion to carbonized analogues. Synth Met 214:14–22Google Scholar
  100. Saraç AS, Erbil C, Ustamehmetoğlu B (1994) Polypyrrole synthezited with oxidative cerium(IV) ions. Polym Bull 33:535–540Google Scholar
  101. Schmidt T, Paulus U, Gasteiger H, Behm R (2001) The oxygen reduction reaction on a Pt/carbon fuel cell catalyst in the presence of chloride anions. J Electroanal Chem 508:41–47Google Scholar
  102. Selvan T, Spatz JP, Klok H-A, Möller M (1998) Gold–polypyrrole core–shell particles in diblock copolymer micelles. Adv Mater 10:132–134Google Scholar
  103. Selvaraj V, Alagar M (2007) Pt and Pt–Ru nanoparticles decorated polypyrrole/multiwalled carbon nanotubes and their catalytic activity towards methanol oxidation. Electrochem Commun 9:1145–1153Google Scholar
  104. Shimizu K-I, Sugino K, Kato K, Yokota S, Okumura K, Satsuma A (2007) Reaction mechanism of H2-promoted selective catalytic reduction of NO with C3H8 over Ag-MFI zeolite. J Phys Chem 111:6481–6487Google Scholar
  105. Silverstein TP (2012) Falling enzyme activity as temperature rises: negative activation energy or denaturation? J Chem Educ 89:1097–1099Google Scholar
  106. Sinha AK, Seelan S, Tsubota S, Haruta M (2004) A three-dimensional mesoporous titanosilicate support for gold nanoparticles: vapor-phase epoxidation of propene with high conversion. Angew Chem Int Ed 43:1546–1548Google Scholar
  107. Smit M, Ocampo A, Espinosa-Medina M, Sebastian P (2003) A modified Nafion membrane with in situ polymerized polypyrrole for the direct methanol fuel cell. J Power Sources 124:59–64Google Scholar
  108. Stejskal J (2013) Conducting polymer-silver composites. Chem Pap 67:814–848Google Scholar
  109. Stejskal J, Trchová M (2018) Conducting polypyrrole nanotubes: a review. Chem Pap 72:1563–1595Google Scholar
  110. Stejskal J, Trchová M, Kovářová J, Prokeš J, Omastová M (2008) Polyaniline-coated cellulose fibers decorated with silver nanoparticles. Chem Pap 62:181–186Google Scholar
  111. Stratakis M, Garcia H (2012) Catalysis by supported gold nanoparticles: beyond aerobic oxidative processes. Chem Rev 112:4469–4506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Trifoni M, Veglio F, Taglieri G, Toro L (2000) Acid leaching process by using glucose as reducing agent: a comparison among the efficiency of different kinds of manganiferous ores. Miner Eng 13:217–221Google Scholar
  113. Updegraff DM (1969) Semimicro determination of cellulose inbiological materials. Anal Biochem 32:420–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Uppalapati D, Boyd BJ, Garg S, Travas-Sejdic J, Svirskis D (2016) Conducting polymers with defined micro-or nanostructures for drug delivery. Biomaterials 111:149–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Vilas V, Philip D, Mathew J (2016) Facile one-pot synthesis of crystalline palladium nanoparticles with exceptional catalytic and antiradical activities. Mater Chem Phys 170:1–11Google Scholar
  116. Villa J, González-Lafont A, Lluch JM, Corchado JC, Espinosa-Garcıa J (1997) Understanding the activation energy trends for the C2H4 + OH → C2H4OH reaction by using canonical variational transition state theory. J Chem Phys 107:7266–7274Google Scholar
  117. Wang L, Yamauchi Y (2011) Strategic synthesis of trimetallic Au@Pd@Pt core-shell nanoparticles from poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-based aqueous solution toward highly active electrocatalysts. Chem Mater 23:2457–2465Google Scholar
  118. Wang H, Jeong HY, Imura M, Wang L, Radhakrishnan L, Fujita N, Castle T, Terasaki O, Yamauchi Y (2011) Shape-and size-controlled synthesis in hard templates: sophisticated chemical reduction for mesoporous monocrystalline platinum nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 133:14526–14529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Xu P, Han X, Wang C, Zhou D, Lv Z, Wen A, Wang X, Zhang B (2008) Synthesis of electromagnetic functionalized nickel/polypyrrole core/shell composites. J Phys. Chem B 112:10443–10448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Xu J, Hu J, Quan B, Wei Z (2009) Decorating polypyrrole nanotubes with Au nanoparticles by an in situ reduction process. Macromol Rapid Commun 30:936–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Yang H, Lu T, Xue K, Sun S, Lu G, Chen S (1997) Electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on polypyrrole film modified with platinum microparticles. J Electrochem Soc 144:2302–2307Google Scholar
  122. Yang P, Zhou S, Du Y, Li J, Lei J (2016) Synthesis of ordered meso/macroporous H3PW12O40/SiO2 and its catalytic performance in oxidative desulfurization. RSC Adv 6:53860–53866Google Scholar
  123. Yue B, Wang C, Ding X, Wallace GG (2012) Polypyrrole coated nylon lycra fabric as stretchable electrode for supercapacitor applications. Electrochim Acta 68:18–24Google Scholar
  124. Zhang P, Wang M, Na Y, Li X, Jiang Y, Sun L (2010) Homogeneous photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water by a bioinspired [Fe2S2] catalyst with high turnover numbers. Dalton Trans 39:1204–1206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhang P, Sui Y, Xiao G, Wang Y, Wang C, Liu B, Zou G, Zou B (2013) Facile fabrication of faceted copper nanocrystals with high catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction. J Mater Chem A 1:1632–1638Google Scholar
  126. Zhang H, Gao S, Shang N, Wang C, Wang Z (2014) Copper ferrite–graphene hybrid: a highly efficient magnetic catalyst for chemoselective reduction of nitroarenes. RSC Adv 4:31328–31332Google Scholar
  127. Zhao H, Kwak JH, Zhang ZC, Brown HM, Arey BW, Holladay JE (2007) Studying cellulose fiber structure by SEM, XRD, NMR and acid hydrolysis. Carbohydr Polym 68:235–241Google Scholar
  128. Zhao Y, Zhan L, Tian J, Nie S, Ning Z (2011) Enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on Pd/polypyrrole–graphene in alkaline medium. Electrochim Acta 56:1967–1972Google Scholar
  129. Zheng W, Li S, Yu X, Chen C, Huang H, Huang Y, Li L (2016) Synthesis of hierarchical reduced graphene oxide/SnO2/polypyrrole ternary composites with high electrochemical performance. Mater Res Bull 80:303–308Google Scholar
  130. Zhou X, Li H, Xiao H, Li L, Zhao Q, Yang T, Zuo J, Huang W (2013) A microporous luminescent europium metal–organic framework for nitro explosive sensing. Dalton Trans 42:5718–5723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhou R, Lin S, Zong H, Huang T, Li F, Pan J, Cui J (2017) Continuous synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity by pulsed laser ablation. J Nanomater 2017:4604159Google Scholar
  132. Zienkiewicz-Strzałka M, Pikus S (2013) Synthesis of photoactive AgCl/SBA-15 by conversion of silver nanoparticles into stable AgCl nanoparticles. Appl Surf Sci 265:904–911Google Scholar
  133. Zinovyeva VA, Vorotyntsev MA, Bezverkhyy I, Chaumont D, Hierso JC (2011) Highly dispersed palladium–polypyrrole nanocomposites: in water synthesis and application for catalytic arylation of heteroaromatics by direct C–H bond activation. Adv Funct Mater 21:1064–1075Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry Department, Faculty of ScienceTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  2. 2.Institute of Basic and Applied SciencesEgypt-Japan University of Science and TechnologyBorg El ArabEgypt
  3. 3.Centre of Polymer Systems, University InstituteTomas Bata University in ZlinZlinCzech Republic
  4. 4.Institute of Macromolecular ChemistryAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicPrague 6Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations