Conversion of paper to film by ionic liquids: manufacturing process and properties
- 166 Downloads
In this study, we investigate the “chemical welding” of paper with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc) using a two-step process. First, the IL is transported into the structure of the paper as a water solution. Then, partial dissolution is achieved by activation with heat (80–95 °C), where the water evaporates and the surfaces of the fibres partially dissolve. The activated paper is washed with water to remove IL, and dried to fuse fibre surfaces into each other. The “chemically welded” paper structure has both elevated dry and wet strength. The treatment conditions can be adjusted to produce both paper-like materials and films. The most severe treatment conditions produce films that are fully transparent and their oxygen and grease barrier properties are excellent. As an all-cellulose material, the “chemically welded” paper is fully biodegradable and is a potential alternative to fossil fuel-based plastics.
KeywordsCellulose Partial dissolution Paper Ionic liquids All-cellulose composite
This study was carried out in the CellFi (Conversion of cellulose to plastic) project funded by Business Finland and Finnish industries companies (Metsä Fibre Ltd, Metsä Board Ltd, Stora Enso Ltd, FL Pipe Ltd, Pölkky Ltd, and Versoul Ltd). Mika Vähä-Nissi is acknowledged for his comments on the barrier measurements, Heikki Pajari is thanked for performing viscosity analyses, and Tommi Virtanen is thanked for performing the NMR analyses. Professor Ilkka Kilpeläinen (University of Helsinki) is thanked for active participation in the CellFi project.
The manuscript was written through contributions of all the authors. All authors have given approval to the final version of the manuscript.
- Gardner D, Tajvidi M (2016) Hydrogen bonding in wood-based materials: an update. Wood Fiber Sci 48:234–244Google Scholar
- Graenacher C (1934) Cellulose solutions. Patent US1943176Google Scholar
- Gurnagul N, Howard RC, Zou X et al (1993) The mechanical permanence of paper: a literature review. J Pulp Pap Sci 19:J160–J160Google Scholar
- Johnson DL (1969) Strengthening swellable fibrous material with an amine oxide. US Patent US3447956AGoogle Scholar
- Lindström T, Wågberg L, Larsson T (2005) On the nature of joint strength in paper-A review of dry and wet strength resins used in paper manufacturing. In: 13th fundamental research symposium. The Pulp and Paper Fundamental Research Society Cambridge, UK, pp 457–562Google Scholar
- Quijada-Maldonado E, van der Boogaart S, Lijbers JH et al (2012) Experimental densities, dynamic viscosities and surface tensions of the ionic liquids series 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and dicyanamide and their binary and ternary mixtures with water and ethanol at T = (298.15–343.15 K). J Chem Thermodyn 51:51–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jct.2012.02.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sjöström E (1993) Wood chemistry: fundamentals and applications. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- Vähä-Nissi M, Laine C, Rautkoski H, Pitkänen M, Vartiainen J, Ohra-Aho T, Sneck A, Gestranius M, Ketoja J (2016) Test methods for evaluating grease and mineral oil barriers. In: TAPPI Place Conference, 10–13 April, Fort Worth, TX, USAGoogle Scholar