Cellulose

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Seeking the lowest phase transition temperature in a cellulosic system for textile applications

Original Paper
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Abstract

Smart or intelligent polymeric materials respond to small changes in their environment with a considerable change in their physicochemical properties. Environmentally responsive hydrogels have the capability to turn from solution to gel, when a specific stimulus like temperature, pH, chemicals, ultrasounds, light, electric fields and mechanical stress, is applied. Cellulose esters thermoreversible hydrogels, like HPMC, MC and NaCMC, are very appealing once they are naturally derived from cellulose, which is the most abundant naturally occurring biopolymer on earth. Allied to this advantage it is also associated the non-toxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability and eco-friendly properties. The transition temperature of the abovementioned cellulose derivatives is medium/high (82.5, 67.5 and 47.5 °C) that is considerable elevated for most biochemical and textile applications. Therefore, within this research it is reported a systematic study to depress the gelation temperature of the cellulosic NaCMC. Several factors may influence sol–gel transition temperature of this cellulosic but herein the focus stood on the influence of polymer concentration, of admixing inorganic salts (NaCl and enriched salt solutions), polyols (glycerol) and polyols salts (Na/CaGlyPhos) and lastly the interaction with polyelectrolytes (CH–NaGlyPhos). The aforementioned modifications were afterward registered by UV–Vis spectroscopy. For the developed stimuli sensitive hydrogels it is envisioned the application on the textile materials, more specifically in the delivery of active species (e.g., scents, moisturizers, antiperspirants)/perspiration absorption, through textile apparel. The system will be triggered by human body temperature and thus a thermogelation temperature of 28–35 °C (skin-cloths microclimate temperature) is compulsory.

Keywords

LCST Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose Chitosan Glycerol phosphate disodium salt Glycerol 

Abbreviations

CH

Chitosan

HPMC

Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose

MC

Methyl cellulose

NaCMC

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose

LCST

Lower critical solution temperature

UV–Vis

Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy

ATR-FTIR

Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

SMHP

Solution that mimics human perspiration

NaGlyPhos

Glycerol phosphate disodium salt

CaGlyPhos

Glycerol phosphate calcium salt

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thankfully acknowledge the funding from the Chemistry Centre at Minho University (Pest-C/QUI/UI0686/2013, UID/QUI/0686/2016), and the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and the Human Capital Operational Program (POCH), for the Post-Doc grant assigned to Sandra Cerqueira Barros (SFRH/BPD/85399/2012). The researchers involved in this work are also grateful to the Company Devan-Micropolis, S.A., for the supply of the biopolymers hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), methyl cellulose (MC) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), applied within this research work.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de QuímicaUniversidade do MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.Departamento de QuímicaUniversidade do MinhoBragaPortugal

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