, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 617–630 | Cite as

Cellulose and/or lignin in fiber-aligned electrospun PET mats: the influence on materials end-properties

  • Rachel Passos de Oliveira Santos
  • Luiz Antônio Ramos
  • Elisabete FrolliniEmail author
Original Paper


Cellulose, combined with lignin in some instances, was used to prepare mats made of fibers preferentially oriented in one direction. The aim of this study was evaluating the influence of this polysaccharide on the end properties of the mats when a thermoplastic polymer (in this case recycled polyethylene terephthalate; PET) is used as the primary component of solutions subjected to electrospinning. All of the prepared mats were composed mostly of ultrathin fibers. The mechanical properties were evaluated in the preferred and perpendicular directions of the alignment of the fibers. The storage and elastic moduli, as well as the tensile strength, were higher in the preferred direction. Cellulose led to mats with higher Tg PET values, indicating interactions at the molecular level between the chain segments of both polymers. One of the cellulose mats, (PETC-2), showed a superior alignment index (AI = 0.72 ± 0.03) and a higher average preferred orientation (APO = 88 ± 1°), which, in turn, led to higher mechanical properties, storage modulus, tensile strength, and elastic modulus when evaluated in the preferred direction of fiber alignment (PETC-2 dir), compared to the others. The results reveal that cellulose can be used to tune various properties of mats based on thermoplastics, thereby significantly increasing the range of applications of these materials.

Graphical abstract


Recycled PET Cellulose Lignin Ultrathin fibers Fiber alignment degree Material properties 



The authors are thankful to CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level or Education Personnel, Brazil, Finance Code 001) for a fellowship to R.P.O.S. The authors also gratefully acknowledge CNPq (National Council of Scientific Research, Brazil) for their financial support (Process 426847/2016-4) and the research productivity fellowship to E.F., as well as to FAPESP (State of São Paulo Research Foundation, Brazil) for financial support (Process No. 2012/00116-6).

Supplementary material

10570_2018_2234_MOESM1_ESM.docx (148 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 147 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Macromolecular Materials and Lignocellulosic Fibers Group, Center of Research on Science and Technology of BioResources, Institute of Chemistry of São CarlosUniversity of São PauloSão CarlosBrazil

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