Advertisement

Fearful Temperament and the Risk for Child and Adolescent Anxiety: The Role of Attention Biases and Effortful Control

  • Ran LiuEmail author
  • Martha Ann Bell
Article
  • 69 Downloads

Abstract

Fearful temperament represents one of the most robust predictors of child and adolescent anxiety; however, not all children with fearful temperament unvaryingly develop anxiety. Diverse processes resulting from the interplay between automatic processing (i.e., attention bias) and controlled processing (i.e., effortful control) drive the trajectories toward more adaptive or maladaptive directions. In this review, we examine the associations between fearful temperament, attention bias, and anxiety, as well as the moderating effect of effortful control. Based on the reviewed literature, we propose a two-mechanism developmental model of attention bias that underlies the association between fearful temperament and anxiety. We propose that the sub-components of effortful control (i.e., attentional control and inhibitory control) play different roles depending on individuals’ temperaments, initial automatic biases, and goal priorities. Our model may help resolve some of the mixed findings and conflicts in the current literature. It may also advance our knowledge regarding the cognitive mechanisms linking fearful temperament and anxiety, as well as facilitate the continuing efforts in identifying and intervening with children who are at risk. Finally, we conclude the review with a discussion on the existing limitations and then propose questions for future research.

Keywords

Fearful temperament Attention biases Effortful control Anxiety 

Notes

Funding

Preparation of this article was supported by Grant HD049878 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The content of this article is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NICHD or the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from every participant included in the study and from the participant’s parents or guardian in the case of minors.

References

  1. Abend, R., de Voogd, L., Salemink, E., Wiers, R. W., Pérez-Edgar, K., Fitzgerald, A., et al. (2018). Association between attention bias to threat and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents. Depression and Anxiety,35(3), 229–238.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22706.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Affrunti, N. W., Geronimi, E. M. C., & Woodruff-Borden, J. (2014). Temperament, peer victimization, and nurturing parenting in child anxiety: A moderated mediation model. Child Psychiatry and Human Development,45(4), 483–492.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-013-0418-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Amir, N., Kuckertz, J. M., & Strege, M. V. (2016). A pilot study of an adaptive, idiographic, and multi-component attention bias modification program for social anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research,40(5), 661–671.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-016-9781-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bar-Haim, Y. (2010). Research review: Attention bias modification (ABM): A novel treatment for anxiety disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,51(8), 859–870.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02251.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bar-Haim, Y., Holoshitz, Y., Eldar, S., Frenkel, T. I., Muller, D., Charney, D. S., et al. (2010). Life-threatening danger and suppression of attention bias to threat. American Journal of Psychiatry,167(6), 694–698.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09070956.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bar-Haim, Y., Lamy, D., Pergamin, L., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin,133(1), 1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bar-Haim, Y., Morag, I., & Glickman, S. (2011). Training anxious children to disengage attention from threat: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,52(8), 861–869.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02368.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bari, A., & Robbins, T. W. (2013). Inhibition and impulsivity: Behavioral and neural basis of response control. Progress in Neurobiology,108, 44–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.06.005.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Boettcher, J., Leek, L., Matson, L., Holmes, E. A., Browning, M., MacLeod, C., et al. (2013). Internet-based attention bias modification for social anxiety: A randomised controlled comparison of training towards negative and training towards positive cues. PLoS ONE,8(9), e71760.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071760.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Booth, R. W. (2014). Uncontrolled avoidance of threat: Vigilance-avoidance, executive control, inhibition and shifting. Cognition and Emotion,28(8), 1465–1473.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2014.882294.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Horwitz, S. M., Schwab-stone, M. E., Leventhal, J. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2000). Mental health in pediatric settings: Distribution of disorders and factors related to service use. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,39(7), 841–849.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200007000-00012.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Pollak, S. D., Grasso, D., Voss, J., Mian, N. D., Zobel, E., et al. (2015). Attention bias and anxiety in young children exposed to family violence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,56(11), 1194–1201.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12397.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown, H. M., Eley, T. C., Broeren, S., MacLeod, C., Rinck, M., Hadwin, J. A., et al. (2014). Psychometric properties of reaction time based experimental paradigms measuring anxiety-related information-processing biases in children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders,28(1), 97–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.11.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, H. M., McAdams, T. A., Lester, K. J., Goodman, R., Clark, D. M., & Eley, T. C. (2013). Attentional threat avoidance and familial risk are independently associated with childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,54(6), 678–685.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12024.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Buss, A. H. (1985). Two kinds of shyness. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-related cognitions in anxiety and motivation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Buss, K. A. (2011). Which fearful toddlers should we worry about? Context, fear regulation, and anxiety risk. Developmental Psychology, Developmental Psychology,47(3), 804–819.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023227.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Buss, K. A., Davis, E. L., Kiel, E. J., Brooker, R. J., Beekman, C., & Early, M. C. (2013). Dysregulated fear predicts social wariness and social anxiety symptoms during kindergarten. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology,42(5), 603–616.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2013.769170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Calkins, S. D., & Fox, N. A. (2002). Self-regulatory processes in early personality development: A multilevel approach to the study of childhood social withdrawal and aggression. Development and Psychopathology,14(3), 477–498.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S095457940200305X.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Chang, S. W., Kuckertz, J. M., Bose, D., Carmona, A. R., Piacentini, J., & Amir, N. (2018). Efficacy of attention bias training for child anxiety disorders: A randomized controlled trial. Child Psychiatry and Human Development.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-018-0832-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Chronis-Tuscano, A., Degnan, K. A., Pine, D. S., Perez-Edgar, K., Henderson, H. A., Diaz, Y., et al. (2009). Stable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety disorder in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,48(9), 928–935.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181ae09df.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2002). A developmental psychopathology perspective on adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,70(1), 6–20.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006X.70.1.6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Cisler, J. M., & Koster, E. H. W. (2010). Mechanisms of attentional biases towards threat in anxiety disorders: An integrative review. Clinical Psychology Review,30(2), 203–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohen Kadosh, K., Heathcote, L. C., & Lau, J. Y. F. (2014). Age-related changes in attentional control across adolescence: How does this impact emotion regulation capacities? Frontiers in Psychology,5, 111.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00111.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Cole, C. E., Zapp, D. J., Fettig, N. B., & Pérez-Edgar, K. (2016). Impact of attention biases to threat and effortful control on individual variations in negative affect and social withdrawal in very young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,141, 210–221.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.09.012.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Crockenberg, S. C., & Leerkes, E. M. (2006). Infant and maternal behavior moderate reactivity to novelty to predict anxious behavior at 2.5 years. Development and Psychopathology,18(1), 17–34.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579406060020.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Dalgleish, T., Taghavi, R., Neshat-Doost, H., Moradi, A., Canterbury, R., & Yule, W. (2003). Patterns of processing bias for emotional information across clinical disorders: A comparison of attention, memory, and prospective cognition in children and adolescents with depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology,32(1), 10–21.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3201_02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Degnan, K. A., Almas, A. N., & Fox, N. A. (2010). Temperament and the environment in the etiology of childhood anxiety. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,51(4), 497–517.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02228.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Degnan, K. A., & Fox, N. A. (2007). Behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders: Multiple levels of a resilience process. Development and Psychopathology,19(3), 729–746.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579407000363.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Derryberry, D., & Reed, M. A. (2002). Anxiety-related attentional biases and their regulation by attentional control. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,111(2), 225–236.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-843X.111.2.225.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Dresler, T., Mériau, K., Heekeren, H. R., & van der Meer, E. (2009). Emotional Stroop task: Effect of word arousal and subject anxiety on emotional interference. Psychological Research,73(3), 364–371.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-008-0154-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Eggum-Wilkens, N. D., Reichenberg, R. E., Eisenberg, N., & Spinrad, T. L. (2016). Components of effortful control and their relations to children’s shyness. International Journal of Behavioral Development,40(6), 544–554.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025415597792.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Spinrad, T. L., Cumberland, A., Liew, J., Reiser, M., et al. (2009). Longitudinal relations of children’s effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality to their externalizing, internalizing, and co-occurring behavior problems. Developmental Psychology,45(4), 988.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016213.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Eldar, S., Apter, A., Lotan, D., Edgar, K. P., Naim, R., Fox, N. A., et al. (2012). Attention bias modification treatment for pediatric anxiety disorders: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry,169(2), 213–230.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11060886.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferrari, R. (2015). Writing narrative style literature reviews. Medical Writing,24(4), 230–235.  https://doi.org/10.1179/2047480615Z.000000000329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Field, A. P., & Lester, K. J. (2010). Is there room for ‘development’in developmental models of information processing biases to threat in children and adolescents? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review,13(4), 315–332.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-010-0078-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fitzgerald, A., Rawdon, C., & Dooley, B. (2016). A randomized controlled trial of attention bias modification training for socially anxious adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy,84, 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.06.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin,99(1), 20–35.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.99.1.20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Marshall, P. J., Nichols, K. E., & Ghera, M. M. (2005). Behavioral inhibition: Linking biology and behavior within a developmental framework. Annual Review of Psychology,56(1), 235–262.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141532.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fu, X., & Pérez-Edgar, K. (2019). Threat-related attention bias in socioemotional development: A critical review and methodological considerations. Developmental Review,51, 31–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2018.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gamble, A. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2009). The time-course of attentional bias in anxious children and adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders,23(7), 841–847.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.04.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Gerardi-Caulton, G. (2000). Sensitivity to spatial conflict and the development of self-regulation in children 24–36 months of age. Developmental Science,3(4), 397–404.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7687.00134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gorlin, E. I., & Teachman, B. A. (2015). Inhibitory control as a moderator of threat-related interference biases in social anxiety. Cognition and Emotion,29(4), 723–735.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2014.931275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Grady, J. S., Karraker, K., & Metzger, A. (2012). Shyness trajectories in slow-to-warm-up infants: Relations with child sex and maternal parenting. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,33(2), 91–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2011.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grafton, B., Visu-Petra, L., Marcuş, O., Liebregts, H., & MacLeod, C. (2016). Controlling the bias: Inhibitory attentional control moderates the association between social anxiety and selective attentional responding to negative social information in children and adolescents. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology,7(3), jep.055916.  https://doi.org/10.5127/jep.055916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grimshaw, G. M., Foster, J. J., & Corballis, P. M. (2014). Frontal and parietal EEG asymmetries interact to predict attentional bias to threat. Brain and Cognition,90, 76–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2014.06.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gulley, L. D., Oppenheimer, C. W., & Hankin, B. L. (2014). Associations among negative parenting, attention bias to anger, and social anxiety among youth. Developmental Psychology,50(2), 577.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033624.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hadwin, J. A., Garner, M., & Perez-Olivas, G. (2006). The development of information processing biases in childhood anxiety: A review and exploration of its origins in parenting. Clinical Psychology Review,26(7), 876–894.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.09.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Helzer, E. G., Connor-Smith, J. K., & Reed, M. A. (2009). Traits, states, and attentional gates: Temperament and threat relevance as predictors of attentional bias to social threat. Anxiety Stress and Coping,22(1), 57–76.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10615800802272244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Henderson, H. A. (2010). Electrophysiological correlates of cognitive control and the regulation of shyness in children. Developmental Neuropsychology,35(2), 177–193.  https://doi.org/10.1080/87565640903526538.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Henderson, H. A., & Wilson, M. J. G. (2017). Attention processes underlying risk and resilience in behaviorally inhibited children. Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports,4(2), 99–106.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40473-017-0111-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ho, S. M. Y., Yeung, D., & Mak, C. W. Y. (2017). The interaction effect of attentional bias and attentional control on dispositional anxiety among adolescents. British Journal of Psychology,108(3), 564–582.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12225.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Hunt, C., Keogh, E., & French, C. C. (2007). Anxiety sensitivity, conscious awareness and selective attentional biases in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy,45(3), 497–509.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.04.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Kappenman, E. S., Farrens, J. L., Luck, S. J., & Proudfit, G. H. (2014). Behavioral and ERP measures of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task: Poor reliability and lack of correlation with anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology,5, 1368.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01368.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Kiel, E. J., & Buss, K. A. (2009). Maternal accuracy and behavior in anticipating children’s responses to novelty: Relations to fearful temperament and implications for anxiety development. Social Development,19(2), 304–325.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00538.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Kindt, M., & Van Den Hout, M. (2001). Selective attention and anxiety: A perspective on developmental issues and the causal status. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment,23(3), 193–202.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010921405496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology,36(2), 220.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.36.2.220.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Kroes, M., Kalff, A. C., Kessels, A. G., Steyaert, J., Feron, F., Van someren, A. J., et al. (2001). Child psychiatric diagnoses in a population of Dutch schoolchildren aged 6 to 8 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,40(12), 1401–1409.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200112000-00010.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Lahat, A., Walker, O. L., Lamm, C., Degnan, K. A., Henderson, H. A., & Fox, N. A. (2014). Cognitive conflict links behavioural inhibition and social problem solving during social exclusion in childhood. Infant and Child Development,23(3), 273–282.  https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.1845.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Lau, J. Y. F., & Waters, A. M. (2017). Annual research review: An expanded account of information-processing mechanisms in risk for child and adolescent anxiety and depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,58(4), 387–407.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12653.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Leerkes, E. M., & Crockenberg, S. C. (2003). The impact of maternal characteristics and sensitivity on the concordance between maternal reports and laboratory observations of infant negative emotionality. Infancy,4(4), 517–539.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327078IN0404_07.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Legerstee, J. S., Tulen, J. H., Dierckx, B., Treffers, P. D., Verhulst, F. C., & Utens, E. M. (2010). CBT for childhood anxiety disorders: Differential changes in selective attention between treatment responders and non-responders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,51(2), 162–172.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02143.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Legerstee, J. S., Tulen, J. H., Kallen, V. L., Dieleman, G. C., Treffers, P. D., Verhulst, F. C., et al. (2009). Threat-related selective attention predicts treatment success in childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,48(2), 196–205.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819176e4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Lindblom, J., Peltola, M. J., Vänskä, M., Hietanen, J. K., Laakso, A., Tiitinen, A., et al. (2017). Early family system types predict children’s emotional attention biases at school age. International Journal of Behavioral Development,41(2), 245–256.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025415620856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Linetzky, M., Pergamin-Hight, L., Pine, D. S., & Bar-Haim, Y. (2015). Quantitative evaluation of the clinical efficacy of attention bias modification treatment for anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety,32(6), 383–391.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22344.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Liu, R., Calkins, S. D., & Bell, M. A. (2018a). Fearful inhibition, inhibitory control, and maternal negative behaviors during toddlerhood predict internalizing problems at age. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,46(8), 1665–1675.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-018-0419-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Liu, P., Taber-Thomas, B. C., Fu, X., & Pérez-Edgar, K. E. (2018b). Biobehavioral markers of attention bias modification in temperamental risk for anxiety: A randomized control trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,57(2), 103–110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.11.016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. LoBue, V., & Pérez-Edgar, K. (2014). Sensitivity to social and non-social threat in temperamentally shy children at-risk for anxiety. Developmental Science,17(2), 239–247.  https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12110.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. LoBue, V., Rakison, D. H., & DeLoache, J. S. (2010). Threat perception across the life span: Evidence for multiple converging pathways. Current Directions in Psychological Science,19(6), 375–379.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721410388801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lonigan, C. J., & Vasey, M. W. (2009). Negative affectivity, effortful control, and attention to threat-relevant stimuli. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,37(3), 387–399.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9284-y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Lonigan, C. J., Vasey, M. W., Phillips, B. M., & Hazen, R. A. (2004). Temperament, anxiety, and the processing of threat-relevant stimuli. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology,33(1), 8–20.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3301_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Luna, B., Garver, K. E., Urban, T. A., Lazar, N. A., & Sweeney, J. A. (2004). Maturation of cognitive processes from late childhood to adulthood. Child Development,75(5), 1357–1372.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00745.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Merikangas, K. R., He, J., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., et al. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U. S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,49(10), 980–989.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Mogg, K., & Bradley, B. P. (1998). A cognitive-motivational analysis of anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy,36(9), 809–848.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00063-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Mogg, K., & Bradley, B. P. (2016). Anxiety and attention to threat: Cognitive mechanisms and treatment with attention bias modification. Behaviour Research and Therapy,87, 76–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.08.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Mogg, K., & Bradley, B. P. (2018). Anxiety and threat-related attention: Cognitive-motivational framework and treatment. Trends in Cognitive Sciences,22(3), 225–240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2018.01.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Dixon, C., Fisher, S., Twelftree, H., & McWilliams, A. (2000). Trait anxiety, defensiveness and selective processing of threat: An investigation using two measures of attentional bias. Personality and Individual Differences,28(6), 1063–1077.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00157-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mogg, K., Bradley, B., Miles, F., & Dixon, R. (2004). Time course of attentional bias for threat scenes: Testing the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis. Cognition and Emotion,18(5), 689–700.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930341000158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mogg, K., Holmes, A., Garner, M., & Bradley, B. P. (2008). Effects of threat cues on attentional shifting, disengagement and response slowing in anxious individuals. Behaviour Research and Therapy,46(5), 656–667.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.02.011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Monk, C. S., Nelson, E. E., McClure, E. B., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Leibenluft, E., et al. (2006). Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation and attentional bias in response to angry faces in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry,163(6), 1091–1097.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.6.1091.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Monk, C. S., Telzer, E. H., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Mai, X., Louro, H. M. C., et al. (2008). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to masked angry faces in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry,65(5), 568–576.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.65.5.568.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Morales, S., Fu, X., & Pérez-Edgar, K. E. (2016). A developmental neuroscience perspective on affect-biased attention. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience,21, 26–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2016.08.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Morales, S., Miller, N. V., Troller-Renfree, S. V., White, L. K., Degnan, K. A., Henderson, H. A., et al. (2019). Attention bias to reward predicts behavioral problems and moderates early risk to externalizing and attention problems. Development and Psychopathology.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579419000166.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Morales, S., Pérez-Edgar, K. E., & Buss, K. A. (2015). Attention biases towards and away from threat mark the relation between early dysregulated fear and the later emergence of social withdrawal. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,43(6), 1067–1078.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9963-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Morales, S., Taber-Thomas, B. C., & Pérez-Edgar, K. E. (2017). Patterns of attention to threat across tasks in behaviorally inhibited children at risk for anxiety. Developmental Science,20(2), e12391.  https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Muris, P. (2006). Unique and interactive effects of neuroticism and effortful control on psychopathological symptoms in non-clinical adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences,40(7), 1409–1419.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Muris, P., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). The role of temperament in the etiology of child psychopathology. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review,8(4), 271–289.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-005-8809-y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Nigg, J. T. (2006). Temperament and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,47(3–4), 395–422.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-01612.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. O’Toole, L., & Dennis, T. A. (2012). Attention training and the threat bias: An ERP study. Brain and Cognition,78(1), 63–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2011.10.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Oldehinkel, A. J., Hartman, C. A., Ferdinand, R. F., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2007). Effortful control as modifier of the association between negative emotionality and adolescents’ mental health problems. Development and Psychopathology,19(2), 523–539.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579407070253.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Ollendick, T. H., & Grills, A. E. (2016). Perceived control, family environment, and the etiology of child anxiety-revisited. Behavior Therapy,47(5), 633–642.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2016.01.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Ollendick, T. H., & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R. (2002). The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry,51(1), 44–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01305-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Ollendick, T. H., White, S. W., Richey, J., Kim-Spoon, J., Ryan, S. M., Wieckowski, A. T., et al. (2018). Attention bias modification treatment for adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Behavior Therapy.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2018.04.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Pavlou, K., Benson, V., & Hadwin, J. A. (2016). Exploring links between neuroticism and psychoticism personality traits, attentional biases to threat and friendship quality in 9-11-year-olds. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology,7(3), jep.055316.  https://doi.org/10.5127/jep.055316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pérez-Edgar, K., Bar-Haim, Y., McDermott, J. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Pine, D. S., & Fox, N. A. (2010). Attention biases to threat and behavioral inhibition in early childhood shape adolescent social withdrawal. Emotion,10(3), 349–357.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018486.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Pérez-Edgar, K., Kujawa, A., Nelson, S. K., Cole, C., & Zapp, D. J. (2013). The relation between electroencephalogram asymmetry and attention biases to threat at baseline and under stress. Brain and Cognition,82(3), 337–343.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2013.05.009.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Pérez-Edgar, K., Reeb-Sutherland, B. C., McDermott, J. M., White, L. K., Henderson, H. A., Degnan, K. A., et al. (2011). Attention biases to threat link behavioral inhibition to social withdrawal over time in very young children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(6), 885–895.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9495-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Petersen, S. E., & Posner, M. I. (2012). The attention system of the human brain: 20 years after. Annual Review of Neuroscience,35(1), 73–89.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-062111-150525.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Price, R. B., Kuckertz, J. M., Siegle, G. J., Ladouceur, C. D., Silk, J. S., Ryan, N. D., et al. (2015). Empirical recommendations for improving the stability of the dot-probe task in clinical research. Psychological Assessment,27(2), 365–376.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000036.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Price, M., Tone, E. B., & Anderson, P. L. (2011). Vigilant and avoidant attention biases as predictors of response to cognitive behavioral therapy for social phobia. Depression and Anxiety,28(4), 349–353.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20791.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Rapee, R. M. (2014). Preschool environment and temperament as predictors of social and nonsocial anxiety disorders in middle adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,53(3), 320–328.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.11.014.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Rapee, R. M., Schniering, C. A., & Hudson, J. L. (2009). Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence: Origins and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology,5(1), 311–341.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153628.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Rhoades, B. L., Greenberg, M. T., & Domitrovich, C. E. (2009). The contribution of inhibitory control to preschoolers’ social–emotional competence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,30(3), 310–320.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Riemann, B. C., Kuckertz, J. M., Rozenman, M., Weersing, V. R., & Amir, N. (2013). Augmentation of youth cognitive behavioral and pharmacological interventions with attention modification: A preliminary investigation. Depression and Anxiety,30(9), 822–828.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22127.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Rothbart, M. K., & Ahadi, S. A. (1994). Temperament and the development of personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,103(1), 55–66.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-X.103.1.55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., Hershey, K. L., & Fisher, P. (2001). Investigations of temperament at three to seven years: The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire. Child Development,72(5), 1394–1408.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00355.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Rothbart, M. K., & Rueda, M. R. (2005). The development of effortful control. In U. Mayr, E. Awh, & S. W. Keele (Eds.), Developing individuality in the human brain: A Tribute to Michael I. Posner (pp. 167–188). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., & Posner, M. I. (2007). Executive attention and effortful control: Linking temperament, brain networks, and genes. Child Development Perspectives,1(1), 2–7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2007.00002.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Roy, A. K., Vasa, R. A., Bruck, M., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Sweeney, M., et al. (2008). Attention bias toward threat in pediatric anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,47(10), 1189–1196.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181825ace.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Rueda, M. R., Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2005). The development of executive attention: Contributions to the emergence of self-regulation. Developmental Neuropsychology,28(2), 573–594.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326942dn2802_2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Salum, G. A., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Gadelha, A., Pan, P., Tamanaha, A. C., et al. (2013). Threat bias in attention orienting: Evidence of specificity in a large community-based study. Psychological Medicine,43(04), 733–745.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291712001651.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Sanson, A., Hemphill, S. A., & Smart, D. (2004). Connections between temperament and social development: A review. Social Development,13(1), 142–170.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-9507.2004.00261.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Shechner, T., Jarcho, J. M., Wong, S., Leibenluft, E., Pine, D. S., & Nelson, E. E. (2017). Threat, rewards, and attention deployment in anxious youth and adults: An eye tracking study. Biological Psychology,122, 121–129.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.10.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Simonds, J., Kieras, J. E., Rueda, M. R., & Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Effortful control, executive attention, and emotional regulation in 7–10-year-old children. Cognitive Development,22(4), 474–488.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2007.08.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Stirling, L. J., Eley, T. C., & Clark, D. M. (2006). Preliminary evidence for an association between social anxiety symptoms and avoidance of negative faces in school-age children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology,35(3), 431–439.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3503_9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Susa, G., Benga, O., Pitica, I., & Miclea, M. (2014). Child temperamental reactivity and self-regulation effects on attentional biases. Frontiers in Psychology,5, 922.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00922.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Taylor, Z. E., Eisenberg, N., & Spinrad, T. L. (2015). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, effortful control, and parenting as predictors of children’s sympathy across early childhood. Developmental Psychology,51(1), 17–25.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038189.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Telzer, E. H., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Mai, X., Ernst, M., Pine, D. S., et al. (2008). Relationship between trait anxiety, prefrontal cortex, and attention bias to angry faces in children and adolescents. Biological Psychology,79(2), 216–222.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.05.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Thai, N., Taber-Thomas, B. C., & Pérez-Edgar, K. E. (2016). Neural correlates of attention biases, behavioral inhibition, and social anxiety in children: An ERP study. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience,19, 200–210.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2016.03.008.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Todd, R. M., Cunningham, W. A., Anderson, A. K., & Thompson, E. (2012). Affect-biased attention as emotion regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences,16(7), 365–372.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2012.06.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Tsui, T. Y. L., Lahat, A., & Schmidt, L. A. (2017). Linking temperamental shyness and social anxiety in childhood and adolescence: Moderating influences of sex and age. Child Psychiatry and Human Development,48(5), 778–785.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-016-0702-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Van Bockstaele, B., Verschuere, B., Tibboel, H., De Houwer, J., Crombez, G., & Koster, E. H. W. (2014). A review of current evidence for the causal impact of attentional bias on fear and anxiety. Psychological Bulletin,140(3), 682–721.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034834.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Vasey, M. W., & Dadds, M. R. (Eds.). (2001). The developmental psychopathology of anxiety. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Verstraeten, K., Vasey, M. W., Raes, F., & Bijttebier, P. (2009). Temperament and risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence: Mediation by rumination and moderation by effortful control. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,37(3), 349–361.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9293-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Vervoort, L., Wolters, L. H., Hogendoorn, S. M., Prins, P. J., De Haan, E., Boer, F., et al. (2011). Temperament, attentional processes, and anxiety: Diverging links between adolescents with and without anxiety disorders? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology,40(1), 144–155.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.533412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Vuilleumier, P., Richardson, M. P., Armony, J. L., Driver, J., & Dolan, R. J. (2004). Distant influences of amygdala lesion on visual cortical activation during emotional face processing. Nature Neuroscience,7(11), 1271–1278.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1341.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Waters, A. M., Bradley, B. P., & Mogg, K. (2014). Biased attention to threat in paediatric anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, separation anxiety disorder) as a function of ‘distress’ versus ‘fear’ diagnostic categorization. Psychological Medicine,44(03), 607–616.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713000779.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Waters, A. M., Henry, J., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., & Pine, D. S. (2010a). Attentional bias towards angry faces in childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry,41(2), 158–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2009.12.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Waters, A. M., Kokkoris, L. L., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., & Pine, D. S. (2010b). The time course of attentional bias for emotional faces in anxious children. Cognition and Emotion,24(7), 1173–1181.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930903274355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Waters, A. M., Mogg, K., & Bradley, B. P. (2012). Direction of threat attention bias predicts treatment outcome in anxious children receiving cognitive-behavioural therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy,50(6), 428–434.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.03.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. White, L. K., Degnan, K. A., Henderson, H. A., Pérez-Edgar, K., Walker, O. L., Shechner, T., et al. (2017). Developmental relations among behavioral inhibition, anxiety, and attention biases to threat and positive information. Child Development,88(1), 141–155.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12696.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. White, L. K., McDermott, J. M., Degnan, K. A., Henderson, H. A., & Fox, N. A. (2011). Behavioral inhibition and anxiety: The moderating roles of inhibitory control and attention shifting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,39(5), 735–747.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9490-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Wieckowski, A. T., Capriola-Hall, N. N., Elias, R., Ollendick, T. H., & White, S. W. (2018). Variability of attention bias in socially anxious adolescents: Differences in fixation duration toward adult and adolescent face stimuli. Cognition and Emotion,33, 825–831.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2018.1476322.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Williams, J. M. G., Watts, F. N., MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. (1988). Cognitive psychology and emotional disorders. Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
  134. Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Suveg, C. (2002). Anger and sadness regulation: Predictions to internalizing and externalizing eymptoms in Children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology,31(3), 393.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3103_11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations