Advertisement

Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 549–561 | Cite as

Collaborative & Proactive Solutions (CPS): A Review of Research Findings in Families, Schools, and Treatment Facilities

  • Ross GreeneEmail author
  • Jennifer Winkler
Article

Abstract

Collaborative & Proactive Solutions (CPS) is a psychosocial treatment model for behaviorally challenging youth, which has been applied in a diverse array of settings, including families, schools, and therapeutic facilities. Numerous studies have documented its effectiveness and examined factors that mediate and moderate the effectiveness of the model. Data have thus far shown that, with regard to behavioral improvements, CPS is at least the equivalent of the standard of care for externalizing youth, Parent Management Training, and that CPS may hold additional benefits as regards parent–child interactions and children’s skill enhancement.

Keywords

Collaborative & Proactive Solutions Research Oppositional defiant disorder Psychosocial treatment Cognitive-behavioral treatment Parent Management Training Incompatibility 

Notes

References

  1. Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting stress index 3rd edition: Professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Barkley, R. (1997). Defiant children: A clinician’s manual for assessment and parent training. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Barkley, R. (2013). Defiant children: A clinician’s manual for assessment and parent training (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  4. Barkley, R., & Robin, A. (2014). Defiant teens: A clinician’s manual for assessment and family intervention (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  5. Bell, R. (1968). A reinterpretation of the direction of effects in socialization. Psychological Review, 75, 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boardman, W. K. (1962). A brief behavior disorder. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 26, 293–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Booker, J.A., Capriola-Hall, N.N., Greene, R.W., and Ollendick, T.H. (in press). Family patterns and longitudinal child outcomes associated with two treatments for oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.Google Scholar
  9. Booker, J. A., Ollendick, T. H., Dunsmore, J. C., Capriola, N., & Greene, R. W. (2018). Change in maternal stress for families in treatment for their children with oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of Child and Family Studies.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1089-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Chess, S., & Thomas, A. (1984). Origins and evolution of behavior disorders: From infancy to early adult life. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  11. Cicchetti, D. (1984). The emergence of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M. (1993). Toward and ecological/transactional model of community violence and child maltreatment. Psychiatry, 56, 96–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M. (1995). Failures in the expectable environment and their impact on individual development: The case of child maltreatment. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol 2: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 32–71). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1995). Psychometric properties of the social competence scale-teacher and parent ratings. Fast Track Project Technical Report.Google Scholar
  15. Dedousis-Wallace, A., Drysdale, S., Murrihy, R. C., Remond, L., McAloon, J., Greene, R. W., & Ollendick, T. H. (2019). Predictors and moderators of parent management training and collaborative proactive solutions in the treatment of oppositional defiant disorder in youth. Ninth World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  16. Dedousis-Wallace, A., Murrihy, R.C., Ollendick, T.H., Greene, R.W., McAloon, J., Gill, S., Remond, L., Ellis, D.M., & Drysdale, S. (2016). Moderators and mediators of Parent Management Training and Collaborative & Proactive Solutions* in the treatment of oppositional defiant disorder in children and adolescents. Presented at symposium, advances in conceptualisation and treatment of youth with oppositional defiant disorder: A comparison of two major therapeutic models, Eighth World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  17. Dunsmore, J.C., Booker, J.A., Atzaba-Poria, N., Greene, R.W. & Ollendick T.H. (under review). Conflict behavior and family functioning in families with a child with oppositional defiant disorder: Effects of emotion coaching and treatment type.Google Scholar
  18. Dunsmore, J.C., Booker, J.A., Atzaba-Poria, N., Ryan, S., Greene, R.W., & Ollendick, T.H. (2015). Emotion coaching predicts change in family functioning across treatment for children with oppositional defiant disorder. Poster presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Philadephia, PA.Google Scholar
  19. Dunsmore, J. C., Booker, J. A., Ollendick, T. H., & Greene, R. W. (2016). Emotion socialization in the context of risk and psychopathology: Maternal emotion coaching predicts better treatment outcomes for emotionally labile children with oppositional defiant disorder. Social Development, 25(1), 8–26.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Epstein, T., & Saltzman-Benaiah, J. (2010). Parenting children with disruptive behaviours: Evaluation of a collaborative problem solving pilot program. Journal of Clinical Psychology Practice, 1(1), 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ercole-Fricke, E., Fritz, P., Hill, L. E., & Snelders, J. (2016). Effects of a collaborative problem-solving approach on an inpatient adolescent psychiatric unit. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 29(3), 127–134.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Eyberg, S. M., & Boggs, S. R. (1998). Parent-child interaction therapy: A psychosocial intervention for the treatment of young conduct-disordered children. In J. M. Briesmeister & C. E. Schaefer (Eds.), Handbook of parent training: Parents as co-therapists for children’s behavior problems (pp. 61–97). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  23. Eyberg, S. M., & Pincus, D. (1999). Eyberg child behavior inventory and sutter-eyberg student behavior inventory-revised: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  24. Garland, E. J., & Weiss, M. (1996). Case study: Obsessive difficult temperament and its response to serotonergic medication. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(7), 916–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gerard, A. B. (1994). Parent-child relationship inventory. Los Angeles, CA: Western psychological services.Google Scholar
  26. Gottlieb, G. (1992). Individual development and evolution: The genesis of novel behavior. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1997). Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  28. Greene, R. W. (1998). The explosive child: A new approach for understanding and parenting easily frustrated. Children: Chronically Inflexible.Google Scholar
  29. Greene, R.W. (2019). Treatment fidelity, ethics, and the law: Collaborative problem solving as a case study. Under review.Google Scholar
  30. Greene, R. W., Ablon, J. S., & Martin, A. (2006). Use of collaborative problem solving to reduce seclusion and restraint in child and adolescent inpatient units. Psychiatric Services, 57(5), 610–612.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.2006.57.5.610.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Greene, R. W., Ablon, J. S., Monuteaux, M. C., Goring, J. C., Henin, A., Raezer-Blakely, L., et al. (2004). Effectiveness of collaborative problem solving in affectively dysregulated children with oppositional-defiant disorder: Initial findings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(6), 1157–1164.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.72.6.1157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Greene, R. W., & Doyle, A. E. (1999). Toward a transactional conceptualization of oppositional defiant disorder: Implications for assessment and treatment. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2(3), 129–148.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021850921476.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Greene, R.W., & Wilmot, W. (2018). Structural changes that support Collaborative & Proactive Solutions in schools. Under review.Google Scholar
  34. Greene, R.W., & Winkler, J (2018). Transforming discipline practices: Collaborative & Proactive Solutions in five schools. Under review.Google Scholar
  35. Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavioral and cognitive therapies. Behavior Therapy, 35, 639–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hayes, S. C., & Hoffman, S. G. (2017). The third wave of cognitive behavioral therapy and the rise of process-based care. World Psychiatry, 16(3), 245–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hembree-Kigin, T. L., & McNeil, C. B. (1995). Clinical child psychology library. Parent–child interaction therapy. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Katz, L. F., Maliken, A. C., & Stettler, N. M. (2012). Parental meta-emotion philosophy: A review of research and theoretical framework. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 417–422.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00244.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kazdin, A. E. (1997). Parent management training: Evidence, outcomes, and issues. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(10), 1349–1356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kopp, C. B. (1989). Regulation of distress and negative emotions: A developmental view. Developmental Psychology, 25(3), 343–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leclère, C., Viaux, S., Avril, M., Achard, C., Chetouani, M., Missonnier, S., et al. (2014). Why synchrony matters during mother-child interactions: A systematic review. PLoS ONE, 9(12), e113571.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113571.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Loeber, R., & Keenan, K. (1994). Interaction between conduct disorder and its comorbid conditions: Effects of age and gender. Clinical Psychology Review, 14(6), 497–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Martin, A., Krieg, H., Esposito, F., Stubbe, D., & Cardona, L. (2008). Reduction of Restraint and seclusion through collaborative problem solving: A five-year prospective inpatient study. Psychiatric Services, 59(12), 1406–1412.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.2008.59.12.1406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Miller-Slough, R. L., Dunsmore, J. C., Ollendick, T. H., & Greene, R. W. (2015). Parent-child synchrony in children with oppositional defiant disorder: Associations with treatment outcomes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(6), 1880–1888.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0356-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mischel, W., et al. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244, 933–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Moffitt, T. E. (1990). The neuropsychology of delinquency: A critical review of theory and research. In N. Morris & M. Tonry (Eds.), Crime and justice (Vol. 12, pp. 99–169). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  47. Moffitt, T. E., & Lynam, D. (1994). The neuropsychology of conduct disorder and delinquency: Implications for understanding antisocial behavior. In D. C. Fowles, P. Sutker, & S. H. Goodman (Eds.), Experimental personality and psychopathology research 1994 (pp. 233–262). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  48. Murrihy, R. C., Dedousis-Wallace, A., Ollendick, T. H., Greene, R. W., McAloon, J., Remond, L., & Drysdale, S. (2019). Parent Management Training (PMT) & Collaborative and Proactive Solutions (CPS): A Randomised Comparison Trial for Oppositional Youth within an Australian population. Ninth World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  49. National Institute of Mental Health. (1985). CGI (Clinical Global Impression) scale. Psychopharmacological Bulletin, 21, 839–844.Google Scholar
  50. Ollendick, T. H., Greene, R. W., Austin, K. E., Fraire, M. G., Halldorsdottir, T., Allen, K. B., et al. (2015). Parent Management Training and Collaborative & Proactive Solutions: A randomized control trial for oppositional youth. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 45(5), 591–604.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1004681.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family processes. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
  52. Pelham, W. E., Gnagy, E. M., Greenslade, K. E., & Milich, R. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(2), 210–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 51–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (1992). Behavior assessment system for children: Manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  55. Robin, A. L., & Foster, S. L. (1988). Negotiating Parent-Adolescent Conflict: A Behavioral-Family Systems Approach. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  56. Rutter, B. P., & Garmezy, N. (1983). Developmental psychopathology. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychopathology (Vol. IV, pp. 775–912)., Socialization, personality, and social development New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  57. Sameroff, A. (1975). Early influences on development: Fact or fancy? Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 21, 263–294.Google Scholar
  58. Sameroff, A. (1995). General systems theory and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 1): Theory and methods (pp. 659–695). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  59. Sams, D. P., Garrison, D., & Bartlett, J. (2016). Innovative strength-based care in child and adolescent inpatient psychiatry. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 29(3), 110–117.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stifter, C. A., Spinrad, T. L., & Braungart-Rieker, J. M. (1999). Toward a developmental model of child compliance: The role of emotion regulation in infancy. Child Development, 70(1), 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Webster-Stratton, C. (2011). The incredible years: Parents, teachers, and children’s training series. Seattle WA: Incredible Years Inc.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.School of Public HealthSan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations