Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 109–145 | Cite as

Methodological Challenges to the Evaluation of Interventions for Foster/Kinship Carers and Children: A Systematic Review

  • Adam Dickes
  • Jacqueline Kemmis-Riggs
  • John McAloon
Article

Abstract

Caregivers of children in alternative care face a complex range of challenges that can result in placement disruption and poor long-term outcomes. Interventions designed to help carers meet these challenges report positive outcomes. Nevertheless, several reviewers have reported these positive results may be mitigated by limitations in trial methodology. This review aims to systematically review these methodological challenges and limitations, to provide an analysis of the current state of the evidence base for these interventions. A systematic review was conducted into the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for foster and kinship carers. Limitations relating to internal validity, external validity and clinical heterogeneity were identified and synthesised. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria. The quality of methods used in the included studies is mixed, with high and unknown levels of bias in the majority of trials. Heterogeneity in participant characteristics, intervention aims and outcome measures across interventions reflect the diversity of carer and child needs and make it difficult to generalise results or compare and synthesise the efficacy of different interventions. These factors limit the application of trial results to evidence-based clinical practice. The diverse and complex needs of this population present significant challenges to robustly evaluating interventions for foster/kinship families. Participant needs, theoretical approaches, intervention aims and outcome measures need to be better coordinated, both within trials and across the field. Exploratory research should be used to generate focussed and concrete hypotheses that can be robustly tested in high-quality randomised controlled trials. Protocol registration number: CRD 42017048415.

Keywords

Foster care Alternative care Looked after children Maltreatment Evidence-based practice Methodology 

Notes

Funding

Funding was provided by the University of Technology Sydney.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Technology Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee.

References

  1. Abidin, R. R. (1990). Parenting stress index-short form. Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  2. Abidin, R. R. (1995). The Parenting Stress Index. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. (2001). ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington: ASEBA.Google Scholar
  4. Appleyard, K., Egeland, B., Dulmen, M. H., & Alan Sroufe, L. (2005). When more is not better: The role of cumulative risk in child behavior outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(3), 235–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold, D. S., O’Leary, S. G., Wolff, L. S., & Acker, M. M. (1993). The Parenting Scale: A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychological Assessment, 5(2), 137–144.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.5.2.137.Google Scholar
  6. Baggett, K., Carta, J., & Horn, E. (2003). Indicator of parent–child interaction (IPCI). Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  7. Barnard, K. (1978). Nursing child assessment teaching scale. Seattle: University of Washington School of Nursing.Google Scholar
  8. Bayley, N. (1993). Bayley scales of infant development: Manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  9. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  10. Begley, C. G., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2015). Reproducibility in science: Improving the standard for basic and preclinical research. Circulation Research, 116(1), 116–126.  https://doi.org/10.1161/circresaha.114.303819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bernard, K., & Dozier, M. (2011). This is my baby: Foster parents’ feelings of commitment and displays of delight. Infant Mental Health Journal, 32(2), 251–262.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bick, J., & Dozier, M. (2013). The effectiveness of an attachment-based intervention in promoting foster mothers’ sensitivity toward foster infants. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34(2), 95–103.  https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Biringen, Z., Derscheid, D., Vliegen, N., Closson, L., & Easterbrooks, M. A. (2014). Emotional availability (EA): Theoretical background, empirical research using the EA Scales, and clinical applications. Developmental Review, 34(2), 114–167.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2014.01.002.Google Scholar
  14. Bishop, D. V. M., & Thompson, P. A. (2016). Problems in using p-curve analysis and text-mining to detect rate of p-hacking and evidential value. PeerJ, 4, e1715.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1715.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Blythe, S. L., Wilkes, L., & Halcomb, E. J. (2014). The foster carer’s experience: An integrative review. Collegian, 21(1), 21–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2012.12.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Briggs-gowan, M. J., Carter, A. S., Irwin, J. R., Wachtel, K., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2002). Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) manual, version 2.0.Google Scholar
  17. Briskman, J., Castle, J., Blackeby, K., Bengo, C., Slack, K., Stebbens, C., et al. (2012). Randomised controlled trial of the fostering changes programme. London: Department for Education. www.gov.uk/government/publications/randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-fostering-changes-programme.
  18. Buehler, C., Cox, M. E., & Cuddeback, G. (2003). Foster parents’ perceptions of factors that promote or inhibit successful fostering. Qualitative Social Work, 2(1), 61–83.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325003002001281.Google Scholar
  19. Bywater, T., Hutchings, J., Linck, P., Whitaker, C., Daley, D., Yeo, S. T., et al. (2011). Incredible years parent training support for foster carers in Wales: A multi-centre feasibility study (Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t). Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(2), 233–243.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2010.01155.x.Google Scholar
  20. Chamberlain, P., Moreland, S., & Reid, K. (1992). Enhanced services and stipends for foster parents: Effects on retention rates and outcomes for children. Child Welfare: Journal of Policy, Practice, and Program, 71(5), 387–401.Google Scholar
  21. Chamberlain, P., Price, J., Leve, L. D., Laurent, H., Landsverk, J. A., & Reid, J. B. (2008a). Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: Outcomes and mediation effects. Prevention Science, 9(1), 17–27.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-007-0080-7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Chamberlain, P., Price, J., Reid, J., & Landsverk, J. (2008b). Cascading implementation of a foster and kinship parent intervention. Child Welfare, 87(5), 27–48.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1987). Parent observation and report of child symptoms. Behavioral Assessment, 9(1), 97–109.Google Scholar
  24. Chambless, D. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (2001). Empirically supported psychological interventions: Controversies and evidence. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Clarke, M., & Oxman, A. (2000). Cochrane reviewers’ handbook. Oxford: Update Software.Google Scholar
  26. Clay, M. M. (2000). Concepts about print. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Education.Google Scholar
  27. Cloitre, M., Stolbach, B. C., Herman, J. L., Kolk, B. V. D., Pynoos, R., Wang, J., et al. (2009). A developmental approach to complex PTSD: Childhood and adult cumulative trauma as predictors of symptom complexity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(5), 399–408.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Craven, P. A., & Lee, R. E. (2006). Therapeutic interventions for foster children: A systematic research synthesis. Research on Social Work Practice, 16(3), 287–304.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731505284863.Google Scholar
  29. DeAngelis, C. D. M. D. M. P. H., Drazen, J. M. M. D., Frizelle, F. A. M. M. F., Haug, C. M. D. P. M., Hoey, J. M. D., Horton, R. F., et al. (2004). Clinical Trial Registration: A statement from the international committee of medical journal editors. JAMA, 292(11), 1363–1364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dorsey, S., Farmer, E. M. Z., Barth, R. P., Greene, K. M., Reid, J., & Landsverk, J. (2008). Current status and evidence base of training for foster and treatment foster parents. Children and Youth Services Review, 30(12), 1403–1416.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2008.04.008.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Dozier, M., Lindhiem, O., Lewis, E., Bick, J., Bernard, K., & Peloso, E. (2009). Effects of a foster parent training program on young children’s attachment behaviors: Preliminary evidence from a randomized clinical trial. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26(4), 321–332.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-009-0165-1.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Lewis, E., Laurenceau, J.-P., & Levine, S. (2008). Effects of an attachment-based intervention of the cortisol production of infants and toddlers in foster care. Development and Psychopathology, 20(3), 845–859.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000400.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Lindhiem, O., Gordon, M. K., Manni, M., Sepulveda, S., et al. (2006). Developing evidence-based interventions for foster children: An example of a randomized clinical trial with infants and toddlers. Journal of Social Issues, 62(4), 767–785.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00486.x.Google Scholar
  34. Dozier, M., & Stovall, K. C. (1997). Parent attachment diary. Unpublished manuscript, University of Delaware.Google Scholar
  35. Everson-Hock, E. S., Jones, R., Guillaume, L., Clapton, J., Goyder, E., Chilcott, J., et al. (2012). The effectiveness of training and support for carers and other professionals on the physical and emotional health and well-being of looked-after children and young people: A systematic review. Child: Care, Health and Development, 38(2), 162–174.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01247.x.Google Scholar
  36. Eyberg, S. M., & Pincus, D. (1999). Eyberg child behavior inventory and sutter-eyberg student behavior inventory-revised: Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  37. Eyberg, S. M., & Ross, A. W. (1978). Assessment of child behavior problems: The validation of a new inventory. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 7(2), 113–116.Google Scholar
  38. Eyberg, S. M., Nelson, M. M., Ginn, N. C., Bhuiyan, N., & Boggs, S. R. (2013). Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System: Comprehensive Manual for Research and Training (4th ed.). Gainesville, FL: PCIT International.Google Scholar
  39. Fantuzzo, J., & Perlman, S. (2007). The unique impact of out-of-home placement and the mediating effects of child maltreatment and homelessness on early school success. Children and Youth Services Review, 29(7), 941–960.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2006.11.003.Google Scholar
  40. Feise, R. J. (2002). Do multiple outcome measures require p-value adjustment? BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2(1), 1.Google Scholar
  41. Festinger, T., & Baker, A. J. L. (2013). The quality of evaluations of foster parent training: An empirical review. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(12), 2147–2153.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.10.009.Google Scholar
  42. Fisher, P. A., Burraston, B., & Pears, K. (2005). The early intervention foster care program: permanent placement outcomes from a randomized trial (Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.). Child Maltreatment, 10(1), 61–71.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559504271561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fisher, P. A., Gunnar, M. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (2000). Preventive intervention for maltreated preschool children: Impact on children’s behavior, neuroendocrine activity, and foster parent functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(11), 1356–1364.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200011000-00009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fisher, P. A., & Kim, H. K. (2007). Intervention effects on foster preschoolers’ attachment-related behaviors from a randomized trial. Prevention Science, 8(2), 161–170.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-007-0066-5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Ford, J. D., & Courtois, C. A. (Eds.). (2013). Treating complex stress disorders in children and adolescents: Scientific foundations and therapeutic models. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  46. Fraser, J. G., Lloyd, S., Murphy, R., Crowson, M., Zolotor, A. J., Coker-Schwimmer, E., et al. (2013). A comparative effectiveness review of parenting and trauma-focused interventions for children exposed to maltreatment. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 34(5), 353–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Frick, R. W. (1996). The appropriate use of null hypothesis testing. Psychological Methods, 1(4), 379.Google Scholar
  48. Fries, A. B. W., & Pollak, S. D. (2004). Emotion understanding in postinstitutionalized Eastern European children. Development and Psychopathology, 16(2), 355–369.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579404044554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gavita, O. A., David, D., Bujoreanu, S., Tiba, A., & Ionutiu, D. R. (2012). The efficacy of a short cognitive-behavioral parent program in the treatment of externalizing behavior disorders in Romanian foster care children: Building parental emotion-regulation through unconditional self- and child-acceptance strategies. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(7), 1290–1297.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.03.001.Google Scholar
  50. Goemans, A., van Geel, M., & Vedder, P. (2015). Over three decades of longitudinal research on the development of foster children: A meta-analysis. Child Abuse and Neglect, 42, 121–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.02.003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Goldbeck, L., & Vitiello, B. (2011). Reporting clinical trials of psychosocial interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 5(1), 4.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-5-4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Good, R. H., Kaminski, R. A., Smith, S., Laimon, D., & Dill, S. (2003). Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills. Colorado: Sopris West Educational Services Longmont.Google Scholar
  53. Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(11), 1337–1345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Goodman, R., Ford, T., Corbin, T., & Meltzer, H. (2004). Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) multi-informant algorithm to screen looked-after children for psychiatric disorders. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13(Suppl2), II25–II31.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-004-2005-3. (validation studies).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Greenberg, M. T., Speltz, M. L., DeKlyen, M., & Jones, K. (2001). Correlates of clinic referral for early conduct problems: Variable-and person-oriented approaches. Development and Psychopathology, 13(02), 255–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gutman, L. M., Sameroff, A. J., & Cole, R. (2003). Academic growth curve trajectories from 1st grade to 12th grade: Effects of multiple social risk factors and preschool child factors. Developmental Psychology, 39(4), 777–790.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.39.4.777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Haidich, A. B. (2010). Meta-analysis in medical research. Hippokratia, 14(Suppl 1), 29–37.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the self-perception profile for children. Denver, CO: University of Denver.Google Scholar
  59. Harter, S. (1988). Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents. Denver, CO: University of Denver.Google Scholar
  60. Higgins, P. T., Altman, D. G., Gøtzsche, P. C., Jüni, P., Moher, D., Oxman, A. D., et al. (2011). The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ, 343, d5928.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Ioannidis, J. P. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Med, 2(8), e124.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Ioannidis, J. P., Patsopoulos, N., & Rothstein, H. (2008). Research methodology: Reasons or excuses for avoiding meta-analysis in forest plots. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 336(7658), 1413–1415.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Jacobsen, H., Moe, V., Ivarsson, T., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Smith, L. (2013). Cognitive development and social-emotional functioning in young foster children: A follow-up study from 2 to 3 years of age. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44(5), 666–677.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-013-0360-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. James, S., Landsverk, J., & Slymen, D. J. (2004). Placement movement in out-of-home care: Patterns and predictors. Children and Youth Services Review, 26(2), 185–206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.01.008.Google Scholar
  65. Jones, R., Everson-Hock, E. S., Papaioannou, D., Guillaume, L., Goyder, E., Chilcott, J., et al. (2011). Factors associated with outcomes for looked-after children and young people: A correlates review of the literature. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(5), 613–622.Google Scholar
  66. Kelly, J. F., & Korfmacher, J. (2008). Raising a baby. Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington.Google Scholar
  67. Kendall, J. M. (2003). Designing a research project: Randomised controlled trials and their principles. Emergency Medicine Journal, 20(2), 164–168.  https://doi.org/10.1136/emj.20.2.164.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Kerr, L., & Cossar, J. (2014). Attachment interventions with foster and adoptive parents: A systematic review. Child Abuse Review, 23(6), 426–439.  https://doi.org/10.1002/car.2313.Google Scholar
  69. Kim, H. K., & Leve, L. D. (2011). Substance use and delinquency among middle school girls in foster care: A three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial (Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(6), 740–750.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025949.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Kim, H. K., Pears, K. C., Leve, L. D., Chamberlain, P., & Smith, D. K. (2013). Intervention effects on health-risking sexual behavior among girls in foster care: The role of placement disruption and tobacco and marijuana use. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 22(5), 370–387.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1067828X.2013.788880.Google Scholar
  71. Kinsey, D., & Schlösser, A. (2013). Interventions in foster and kinship care: A systematic review. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18(3), 429–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Koren-Karie, N., & Markman-Gefen, R. (2016). Foster caregiver insightfulness and emotional investment in foster children. Journal of Social Work, 16(4), 489–509.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1468017315581528.Google Scholar
  73. Kramer, L. (2010). Quality of sibling interaction coding manual: More fun with sisters and brothers 2007–2010. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  74. Kramer, L., & Houston, D. (1999). Hope for the children: A community-based approach to supporting families who adopt children with special needs. Child Welfare: Journal of Policy, Practice, and Program, 78(5), 611–635.Google Scholar
  75. Leenarts, L. E. W., Diehle, J., Doreleijers, T. A. H., Jansma, E. P., & Lindauer, R. J. L. (2013). Evidence-based treatments for children with trauma-related psychopathology as a result of childhood maltreatment: A systematic review. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(5), 269–283.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-012-0367-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Leve, L. D., Harold, G. T., Chamberlain, P., Landsverk, J. A., Fisher, P. A., & Vostanis, P. (2012). Practitioner review: Children in foster care—Vulnerabilities and evidence-based interventions that promote resilience processes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(12), 1197–1211.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02594.x.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Lewis-Morrarty, E., Dozier, M., Bernard, K., Terracciano, S. M., & Moore, S. V. (2012). Cognitive flexibility and theory of mind outcomes among foster children: preschool follow-up results of a randomized clinical trial (Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t). The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 51(2), S17–S22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.05.005.Google Scholar
  78. Linares, L. (2008). The sibling aggression scale. Unpublished scale. New York, NY: NYU Child Study Center, New York University.Google Scholar
  79. Linares, L. O., Montalto, D., Li, M., & Oza, V. S. (2006). A promising parenting intervention in foster care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(1), 32–41.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.74.1.32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Locke, L. M., & Prinz, R. J. (2002). Measurement of parental discipline and nurturance. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(6), 895–929.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(02)00133-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Luke, N., Sinclair, I., Woolgar, M., & Sebba, J. (2014). What works in preventing and treating poor mental health in looked after children. London: NSPCC.Google Scholar
  82. Maaskant, A. M., van Rooij, F. B., Overbeek, G. J., Oort, F. J., & Hermanns, J. M. A. (2016). Parent training in foster families with children with behavior problems: Follow-up results from a randomized controlled trial. Children and Youth Services Review.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.09.005.Google Scholar
  83. Macdonald, G. M., & Turner, W. (2005). An experiment in helping foster-carers manage challenging behaviour. British Journal of Social Work, 35(8), 1265–1282.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bch204.Google Scholar
  84. Marti Haidar, Y. M. (2013). What is the experience of foster care mothers? ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.Google Scholar
  85. McWayne, C. M., Owsianik, M., Green, L. E., & Fantuzzo, J. W. (2008). Parenting behaviors and preschool children’s social and emotional skills: A question of the consequential validity of traditional parenting constructs for low-income African Americans. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(2), 173–192.Google Scholar
  86. Mersky, J. P., Topitzes, J., Grant-Savela, S. D., Brondino, M. J., & McNeil, C. B. (2016). Adapting parent–child interaction therapy to foster care: Outcomes from a randomized trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 26(2), 157.Google Scholar
  87. Mersky, J. P., Topitzes, J., Janczewski, C. E., & McNeil, C. B. (2015). Enhancing foster parent training with parent–child interaction therapy: Evidence from a randomized field experiment. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 6(4), 591–616.  https://doi.org/10.1086/684123.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Millward, R., Kennedy, E., Towlson, K., & Minnis, H. (2006). Reactive attachment disorder in looked-after children. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 11(4), 273–279.Google Scholar
  89. Milner, J. (1990). An interpretive manual for the child abuse potential inventory. DeKalb, IL: Psytec. Inc.Google Scholar
  90. Minnis, H., & Devine, C. (2001). The effect of foster carer training on the emotional and behavioural functioning of looked after children. Adoption and Fostering, 25(1), 44–54.Google Scholar
  91. Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., et al. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic Reviews, 4(1), 1.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Nissen, S. B., Magidson, T., Gross, K., & Bergstrom, C. T. (2016). Publication bias and the canonization of false facts. ELife.  https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21451.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. O’Dell, S. L., Tarler-Benlolo, L., & Flynn, J. M. (1979). An instrument to measure knowledge of behavioral principles as applied to children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 10(1), 29–34.Google Scholar
  94. Oosterman, M., Schuengel, C., Wim Slot, N., Bullens, R. A. R., & Doreleijers, T. A. H. (2007). Disruptions in foster care: A review and meta-analysis. Children and Youth Services Review, 29(1), 53–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2006.07.003.Google Scholar
  95. Opris, D., & Macavei, B. (2007). The profile of emotional distress; Norms for the Romanian population. Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, 7(2), 139.Google Scholar
  96. Oswald, D. P., & Ollendick, T. H. (1989). Role taking and social competence in autism and mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(1), 119–127.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02212723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Pears, K. C., Healey, C. V., Fisher, P. A., Braun, D., Gill, C., Conte, H. M., et al. (2014). Immediate effects of a program to promote school readiness in low-income children: Results of a pilot study. Education and Treatment of Children, 37(3), 431–460.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K., & Fisher, P. A. (2012). Effects of a school readiness intervention for children in foster care on oppositional and aggressive behaviors in kindergarten. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(12), 2361–2366.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.08.015.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K., & Fisher, P. A. (2016). Decreasing risk factors for later alcohol use and antisocial behaviors in children in foster care by increasing early promotive factors. Children and Youth Services Review, 65, 156–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.04.005.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K., Fisher, P. A., & Yoerger, K. (2013). Early school engagement and late elementary outcomes for maltreated children in foster care. Developmental Psychology, 49(12), 2201–2211.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Perry, B. D. (2009). Examining child maltreatment through a neurodevelopmental lens: Clinical applications of the neurosequential model of therapeutics. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 14(4), 240–255.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15325020903004350.Google Scholar
  102. Price, J. M., Chamberlain, P., Landsverk, J., Reid, J. B., Leve, L. D., & Laurent, H. (2008). Effects of a foster parent training intervention on placement changes of children in foster care. Child Maltreatment, 13(1), 64–75.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559507310612.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Price, J. M., Roesch, S., Walsh, N. E., & Landsverk, J. (2015). Effects of the KEEP foster parent intervention on child and sibling behavior problems and parental stress during a randomized implementation trial. Prevention Science, 16(5), 685–695.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-014-0532-9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Racusin, R., Maerlender, A. C., Sengupta, A., Isquith, P. K., & Straus, M. B. (2005). Psychosocial treatment of children in foster care: A review. Community Mental Health Journal, 41(2), 199–221.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-005-2656-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Redding, R. E., Fried, C., & Britner, P. A. (2000). Predictors of placement outcomes in treatment foster care: Implications for foster parent selection and service delivery. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9(4), 425–447.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1009418809133.Google Scholar
  106. Rothwell, P. M. (2005). External validity of randomised controlled trials: “To whom do the results of this trial apply?”. The Lancet, 365(9453), 82–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17670-8.Google Scholar
  107. Roweton, W. E. (1990). Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 176 pp., $25.00. Psychology in the Schools, 27(1), 91–92.  https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6807(199001)27:1<91:AID-PITS2310270115>3.0.CO;2-Y.Google Scholar
  108. Rubin, D. M., O’Reilly, A. L. R., Luan, X. Q., & Localio, A. R. (2007). The impact of placement stability on behavioral well-being for children in foster care. Pediatrics, 119(2), 336–344.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2006-1995.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Ryan, J. P., & Testa, M. F. (2005). Child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency: Investigating the role of placement and placement instability. Children and Youth Services Review, 27(3), 227–249.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.05.007.Google Scholar
  110. Sackett, D. L., Rosenberg, W. M. C., Gray, J. A. M., Haynes, R. B., & Richardson, W. S. (1996). Evidence based medicine: What it is and what it isn’t. BMJ, 312(7023), 71–72.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.312.7023.71.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Schuengel, C., Oosterman, M., & Sterkenburg, P. S. (2009). Children with disrupted attachment histories: Interventions and psychophysiological indices of effects. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-3-26.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Simonsohn, U., Nelson, L. D., & Simmons, J. P. (2014). P-curve: A key to the file-drawer. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(2), 534.Google Scholar
  113. Sinclair, I., Baker, C., Wilson, K., & Gibbs, I. (2005). Foster Children: Where they go and how they get on. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  114. Smith, D. K., Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2011). Preventing internalizing and externalizing problems in girls in foster care as they enter middle school: Impact of an intervention. Prevention Science, 12(3), 269–277.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-011-0211-z.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Smith, J., & Ross, H. (2007). Training parents to mediate sibling disputes affects children’s negotiation and conflict understanding. Child Development, 78(3), 790–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Spieker, S., Nelson, E. M., & Condon, M.-C. (2011). Validity of the TAS-45 as a measure of toddler–parent attachment: preliminary evidence from Early Head Start families. Attachment & Human Development, 13(1), 69–90.Google Scholar
  117. Spieker, S. J., Oxford, M. L., & Fleming, C. B. (2014). Permanency outcomes for toddlers in child welfare 2 years after a randomized trial of a parenting intervention. Children and Youth Services Review, 44, 201–206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.06.017.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Spieker, S. J., Oxford, M. L., Kelly, J. F., Nelson, E. M., & Fleming, C. B. (2012). Promoting first relationships: Randomized trial of a relationship-based intervention for toddlers in child welfare. Child Maltreatment, 17(4), 271–286.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559512458176.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Sprang, G. (2009). The efficacy of a relational treatment for maltreated children and their families. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 14(2), 81–88.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2008.00499.x.Google Scholar
  120. Tarren-Sweeney, M. (2013a). An investigation of complex attachment- and trauma-related symptomatology among children in foster and kinship care. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44(6), 727–741.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-013-0366-x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Tarren-Sweeney, M. (2013b). The assessment checklist for adolescents—ACA: A scale for measuring the mental health of young people in foster, kinship, residential and adoptive care. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(3), 384–393.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.12.005.Google Scholar
  122. Tarren-Sweeney, M. (2014). Our twenty-first century quest: Locating effective mental health interventions for children and young people in care, and those adopted from care. In M. Tarren-Sweeney & A. Vetere (Eds.), Mental health services for vulnerable children and young people: Supporting children who are, or have been, in foster care. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  123. Turner, W., Macdonald, G. M., & Dennis, J. A. (2007). Behavioural and cognitive behavioural training interventions for assisting foster carers in the management of difficult behaviour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003760.pub3.Google Scholar
  124. Van Andel, H., Post, W., Jansen, L., Van der Gaag, R. J., Knorth, E., & Grietens, H. (2016). Optimizing foster family placement for infants and toddlers: A randomized controlled trial on the effect of the foster family intervention. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 86(3), 332–344.  https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Webster-Stratton, C. (1998). Preventing conduct problems in head start children: Strengthening parenting competencies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715–730.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.5.715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. West, S. L., Gartlehner, G., Mansfield, A. J., Poole, C., Tant, E., Lenfestey, N., et al. (2010). Comparative effectiveness review methods: Clinical heterogeneity. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53310/.
  127. Zelazo, P. D. (2006). The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS): A method of assessing executive function in children. Nature Protocols, 1(1), 297.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental HealthUniversity of Technology SydneyUltimoAustralia

Personalised recommendations