Do Extended Family Members Protect Children from Disadvantaged Neighborhoods? Focusing on Behavioral Problems of Children

  • Jeehye KangEmail author
Original Paper



The developmental–ecological model highlights the contextual environments that influence children’s emotional and behavioral adjustment. No previous research considers neighborhood characteristics when examining the influence of extended family members.


This study investigates the characteristics of neighborhoods where extended family households reside, and the confounding and moderating effects of extended family household structure and the neighborhood influences of income and co-ethnic concentration levels.


Data come from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study and the decennial census. The analytical sample includes 1553 children between the ages of 3 and 11 years, clustered in 1191 households in 65 census tracts. This study uses multilevel linear regression modeling.


Extended family households are more likely than nuclear families to live in lower-income neighborhoods, but with similar proportions of co-ethnics. Children in extended family households show higher levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors compared to children in nuclear families, an effect not explained by their neighborhood environments. Extended family members moderate the neighborhood effects, boosting advantages within co-ethnic concentrated neighborhoods. With a higher proportion of co-ethnics in their neighborhoods, children in extended families show lower levels of externalizing behaviors compared to children in nuclear families.


Co-resident extended family members not only predict child internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems but also moderate their neighborhood environments. This study provides policy implications, highlighting the potential of extended members to promote child development.


Child development Internalizing behaviors Externalizing behaviors Extended family household Neighborhood environments 



This research uses data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS). Data collection for L.A. FANS was funded primarily by Grants HD35944 and HD49865 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Grant AG22005 from the National Institute on Aging, and Grant ES13907 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Science. Information on how to obtain the L.A. FANS data files is available on the L.A. FANS website ( The author thanks the editor and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive remarks that helped develop and strengthen this research. Gratitude is extended to Philip N. Cohen and Ruth Triplett for their comments and support associated with this research.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that she or he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent is not required. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Old Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA

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