Peroxiredoxin 4 ameliorates amyloid beta oligomer-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting ER-stress in HT-22 hippocampal neuron cells
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by amyloid beta oligomers (AβO), which induce cell death by triggering oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Oxidative stress is regulated by antioxidant enzymes, including peroxiredoxins. Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are classified into six subtypes, based on their localization and cysteine residues, and protect cells by scavenging hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) is unique in being localized to the ER; however, whether Prx4 protects neuronal cells from AβO-induced toxicity remains unclear, although Prx4 expression is upregulated in AβO-induced oxidative stress and ER stress. In this study, we established HT-22 cells in which Prx4 was either overexpressed or silenced to investigate its role in AβO-induced toxicity. AβO-stimulation of HT-22 cells with overexpressed Prx4 caused decreases in both AβO-induced ROS and ER stress (followed by ER expansion). In contrast, AβO stimulation caused increases in both ROS and ER stress that were notably higher in HT-22 cells with silenced Prx4 expression than in HT-22 cells. Consequently, Prx4 overexpression decreased apoptotic cell death and ameliorated the AβO-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+. Therefore, we conclude that Prx4 has a protective effect against AβO-mediated oxidative stress, ER stress, and neuronal cell death. Furthermore, these results suggest that Prx4 may be a target for preventing AβO toxicity in AD.
KeywordsAlzheimer’s disease Amyloid beta oligomer Peroxiredoxin 4 Oxidative stress Endoplasmic reticulum stress
Amyloid beta oligomer
M. K. Kam conceived the study; performed the cell culture of HT-22 cells, western blotting analysis, and confocal imaging; and collected and interpreted the data. D. G. Lee and B. Kim performed data collection, analysis, and interpretation. H-S. Lee, S-R. Lee, and Y. C. Bae designed the study and arranged for financial support. D. S. Lee conceived of and designed the study; analyzed and interpreted data; wrote the manuscript; arranged for financial support; and arranged for final approval of the manuscript after receiving input from all authors.
This research was supported by grants from the KRIBB Research Initiative Program (KGM4621922) and the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Republic of Korea government (NRF-2015R1A4A1042271, 2017R1A2B4008176, and 2017R1A5A2015391).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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