Effects of Cu and Fe Additives on Low-Temperature Catalytic Steam Reforming of Toluene Over Ni/AC Catalysts

  • Xiaoqin YangEmail author
  • Xuejing Liu
  • Tong Guo
  • Chuang Liu


Steam reforming of toluene, a model tar compound, was carried out at low temperature of 600 °C using Cu–Ni and Fe–Ni bimetallic catalysts with different molar ratios supported on activated carbon (AC). For the Cu–Ni/AC catalysts, the carbon conversion of toluene rose and then decreased with the content of Cu increasing, and the best performance was achieved at the molar ratio of 0.2. However, the Fe–Ni/AC catalyst with the optimum composition of Fe/Ni = 0.1 had a better catalytic performance for toluene steam reforming than the Cu–Ni/AC catalyst (Cu/Ni = 0.2). During the duration test of 20 h, the Fe–Ni/AC (Fe/Ni = 0.1) catalyst showed higher activity for the average carbon conversion of toluene (93.8% vs. 92.9%) and better resistance. to carbon deposition than those of Ni/AC catalyst. Moreover, the metal average sizes of the spent Ni/AC and 0.1-Fe–Ni/AC were estimated to be 30.0 nm and 19.0 nm, respectively. Based on a variety of physiochemical characterization results, it is demonstrated that the addition of iron into Ni/AC catalyst led to good dispersion of Ni, and few coke formation and limited aggregation of nickel particles during reaction.


Biomass gasification Tar Steam reforming Nickel Promoter Activated carbon 



The work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2015XKMS046), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21706276).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Coal Processing and Efficient Utilization, Ministry of EducationChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Chemical Engineering and TechnologyChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina

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