N-Doped Carbon Materials as Heterogeneous Catalysts for High Efficiency Isomerization Glucose to Fructose in Aqueous Media

  • Yong Wang
  • Jinghua Wang
  • Yuan Zhang
  • Feng Song
  • Yujiao Xie
  • Ming Wang
  • Hongyou CuiEmail author
  • Weiming YiEmail author


Fructose is not only an important food and beverage ingredient, but also a renewable resource for production of bio-chemicals. In this paper, a series of N doped mesoporous carbon materials (MCNs) were prepared and evaluated as heterogeneous catalysts for catalytic isomerization of glucose to fructose. The MCNs were prepared through carbonization of p-phenylenediamine disulfate and the effects of desulfonation with NaOH and hydrogenation treatments were examined. It is found that the molar ratio of H2SO4/pPDA crucially affects the porous structure and the nitrogen content. Desulfonation with NaOH treatment could largely eliminate the sulfonic groups on the carbon edges and thus enhance the basicity of the MCN materials, whereas hydrogenation reduction could modify the N atom species and reinforce the strength of the basic sites, as a result enhancing the catalytic activities in glucose isomerization to fructose. Among all of the prepared MCN samples, MCN-2-DH showed an excellent activity in aqueous solution, which afforded a fructose yield of 31.6% with 84.6% selectivity.

Graphic Abstract


Glucose Fructose Isomerization Catalyst N-Doped carbon 



The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (21978158 and 51536009), the Public Welfare Category of Key R&D Programs in Shandong Province (2018GGX107003) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2018BB062).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong Wang
    • 1
  • Jinghua Wang
    • 1
  • Yuan Zhang
    • 1
  • Feng Song
    • 1
  • Yujiao Xie
    • 1
  • Ming Wang
    • 1
  • Hongyou Cui
    • 1
    Email author
  • Weiming Yi
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringShandong University of TechnologyZiboChina
  2. 2.School of Agricultural Engineering and Food ScienceShandong University of TechnologyZiboChina

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