The Effect of Ceria Content on the Acid–Base and Catalytic Characteristics of ZrO2–CeO2 Oxide Compositions in the Process of Ethanol to n-Butanol Condensation

  • Nina V. VlasenkoEmail author
  • Pavlo I. Kyriienko
  • Olena I. Yanushevska
  • Karina V. Valihura
  • Sergii O. Soloviev
  • Peter E. Strizhak


Ethanol conversion into n-butanol was performed over ZrO2–CeO2 mixed oxide catalysts. The effect of ceria content on the acid–base and catalytic properties of ZrO2–CeO2 compositions has been studied. The introduction of CeO2 additives into zirconia stabilizes the tetragonal phase of ZrO2 leading to an increase in basicity of the samples and, as a result, increases the activity of catalysts towards n-butanol. The highest ethanol conversion, selectivity and the rate of n-butanol formation were obtained over the ZrO2–CeO2 sample with 10% of ceria, which exhibited the highest concentration and strength of base sites. This sample consists of a solid solution of ZrO2–CeO2, whereas at higher concentrations of additive, CeO2 forms an individual phase.

Graphic Abstract


Guerbet condensation n-Butanol Zirconia Ceria Acid–base properties Phase composition 



The authors are grateful to Dr. V.L. Struzhko for the synthesis of ZrO2–CeO2 samples.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.L.V. Pisarzhevskii Institute of Physical ChemistryNational Academy of Sciences of UkraineKyivUkraine
  2. 2.National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”KievUkraine

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