Graphene Oxide Incorporated Strontium Nanoparticles as a Highly Efficient and Green Acid Catalyst for One-Pot Synthesis of Tetramethyl-9-aryl-hexahydroxanthenes and 13-Aryl-5H-dibenzo[b,i]xanthene-5,7,12,14(13H)-tetraones Under Solvent-Free Conditions

  • Seyyed Rasul Mousavi
  • Hamid Rashidi Nodeh
  • Elham Zamiri Afshari
  • Alireza ForoumadiEmail author


An efficient, inexpensive and recyclable graphene oxide/strontium nanocatalyst was synthesized and applied in a pseudo three-component, one-pot cyclocondensation of aromatic aldehydes and dimedone/lowson to afford the corresponding 3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-9-aryl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-diones and 13-aryl-5H-dibenzo[b,i]xanthene-5,7,12,14(13H)-tetraones in high yields under solvent-free conditions. To the best of our knowledge, there are no literature reports on applying graphene oxide/strontium as a nanocatalyst for xanthene derivatives synthesis. The key potential benefits of the present method are including high yields, short reaction time, easy workup, recyclability of catalyst and ability to tolerate a variety of functional groups which gives economical as well as ecological rewards. The nanocatalyst easily separated from the reaction mixture easily by applying an external magnet and reused at least six times without noticeable degradation in catalytic activity.

Graphical Abstract


Xanthene Lowson Heterogeneous catalyst Reusable catalyst Graphene oxide One-pot Magnetic nanocatalyst 



Authors would like to thank Iran’s National Elites Foundation for the financial support and Tehran University of Medical Sciences for facilities and financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyyed Rasul Mousavi
    • 1
  • Hamid Rashidi Nodeh
    • 2
  • Elham Zamiri Afshari
    • 3
  • Alireza Foroumadi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Food science & Technology, Faculty of Food Industry and AgricultureStandard Research Institute (SRI)KarajIran
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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