A New Lewis Acidic Zr Catalyst for the Synthesis of Furanic Diesel Precursor from Biomass Derived Furfural and 2-Methylfuran
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Herein, we reported the first time to use Lewis type acidic Zr/SBA-15 catalyst for the hydroxyalkylation/alkylation (HAA) reaction of biomass derived furfural and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) to produce diesel precursors. Characterizations such as XRD, XPS, SEM and TEM, were used to provide detailed structure features of mesoporous catalysts of varied Si/Zr ratios. Among the catalysts, Zr/SBA-15(20) (Si/Zr ratio(mol:mol) = 20:1) possessed the highest catalytic activity in the HAA reaction, providing 93.9% yield of the target product at 140 °C under neat condition. Lewis acid was revealed as the dominant active sites for the HAA reaction. Reaction parameters including reaction temperature, catalyst loading and furfural/2-MF ratio were investigated and found to affect the reaction efficiency and product yields. Besides, the optimal Zr/SBA-15(20) catalyst maintained outstanding recyclability in the recycling test, offering almost comparable reaction yields as freshly prepared catalyst. This work not only opens up a new concept by using Lewis catalyst for HAA reaction to synthesize diesel precursors from biomass, but also enriches the catalyst inventory of HAA reaction by providing a pH-neutral, recyclable and stable catalyst.
KeywordsZr/SBA-15 Hydroxyalkylation/alkylation Diesel precursor 2-Methylfuran Furfural
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC 21502095), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20150872), Qing Lan Project of Jiangsu Province and Top-notch Academic Programs Project of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (TAPP PPZY2015C221) and Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).