Influence of cryopreservation on structure and function of mammalian spermatozoa: an overview

  • Maryam Ezzati
  • Dariush Shanehbandi
  • Kobra Hamdi
  • Sara Rahbar
  • Maryam PashaiaslEmail author
Full Length Review


Cryopreservation is a useful approach to preserve male fertility for assisted reproduction technique and other evaluations. In spite of extensive development in the cryopreservation field, there are biological and biochemical points including DNA fragmentation and antioxidant which should be illuminated to preserve fertility in safe form. Several molecular markers such as coding and noncoding RNAs are transferred from spermatozoa into oocyte via fertilization. These biomarkers affect fertility potential during the cryopreservation. Despite its impact, sperm cryopreservation has some destructive effect including loss of sperm motility and viability, acrosomal damage, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, plasma membrane permeability alteration even nuclear, and DNA damage. There is a growing concern about the impact of sperm cryopreservation on biological factors which can interrupt successful fertility procedures such as in vitro fertilization. Additionally, cryo-damage can decrease embryonic development extent. Promoting cryopreservation method via investigating the wide range of non-invasive factors may be increasingly important to have access to safe approach of freezing. Therefore, the aim of this study is the assessment of biological factors which can penetrate the fertility potential during the freezing procedure, explicate innovative methods in fertility preservation.


Cryopreservation Male infertility Biological factor 



This article is in line with Dr. Maryam Ezzati’s thesis about the effect of cryopreservation on male fertility to acquire a Ph.D. in Tabriz Medical University. This study was endorsed by Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz/Iran (60961).

Compliane with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Immunology Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of MedicineTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Women’s Reproductive Health Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of MedicineShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Reproductive Biology, Faculty of Advanced Medical SciencesTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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