Optimal Noise-Immune Genetic Codes

  • I. V. SergienkoEmail author
  • B. A. Biletskyy
  • A. M. Gupal
  • M. A. Gupal


DNA symmetry is used to generate optimal genetic codes whose noise immunity with respect to polarity of amino acids in case of mutations in nucleotides is much greater than immunity of standard codes. Noise immunity of optimal symmetric and non-symmetric genetic codes is analyzed. Databases of genetic diseases are used to show that optimal symmetric code for which symmetry holds in every second case keeps polarity of amino acids at mutations in first and second nucleotides of codon as compared with standard code.


genetic code symmetry in DNA mutations in nucleotides noise immunity amino acid codon 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. V. Sergienko
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. A. Biletskyy
    • 1
  • A. M. Gupal
    • 1
  • M. A. Gupal
    • 1
  1. 1.V. M. Glushkov Institute of CyberneticsNational Academy of Sciences of UkraineKyivUkraine

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