Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 599–614 | Cite as

A contemporary review of male breast cancer: current evidence and unanswered questions

  • Roberto A. Leon-FerreEmail author
  • Karthik V. Giridhar
  • Tina J. Hieken
  • Robert W. Mutter
  • Fergus J. Couch
  • Rafael E. Jimenez
  • John R. Hawse
  • Judy C. Boughey
  • Kathryn J. Ruddy


Male breast cancer is rare, accounting for 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses in the USA. Because of its rarity, most major breast cancer trials have included only female patients. This has resulted in limited prospective data to guide the clinical management of men with breast cancer. As a result, treatment decisions are typically extrapolated from data generated in female patients. This approach may be suboptimal, particularly considering the differing hormonal milieus between men and women with respect to both breast cancer development and treatment. Herein, we summarize current knowledge of the biology and clinicopathology of male breast cancer and review current approaches to locoregional and systemic management of this rare disease.


Male breast cancer BRCA Epidemiology Surgery Endocrine therapy Chemotherapy Radiation therapy 



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto A. Leon-Ferre
    • 1
    Email author
  • Karthik V. Giridhar
    • 1
  • Tina J. Hieken
    • 2
  • Robert W. Mutter
    • 3
  • Fergus J. Couch
    • 4
  • Rafael E. Jimenez
    • 4
  • John R. Hawse
    • 5
  • Judy C. Boughey
    • 2
  • Kathryn J. Ruddy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oncology, Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  5. 5.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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