Highly accelerated cardiac MRI using iterative SENSE reconstruction: initial clinical experience


To evaluate the qualitative and quantitative performance of an accelerated cardiovascular MRI (CMR) protocol that features iterative SENSE reconstruction and spatio-temporal L1-regularization (IS SENSE). Twenty consecutively recruited patients and 9 healthy volunteers were included. 2D steady state free precession cine images including 3-chamber, 4-chamber, and short axis slices were acquired using standard parallel imaging (GRAPPA, acceleration factor = 2), spatio-temporal undersampled TSENSE (acceleration factor = 4), and IS SENSE techniques (acceleration factor = 4). Acquisition times, quantitative cardiac functional parameters, wall motion abnormalities (WMA), and qualitative performance (scale: 1-poor to 5-excellent for overall image quality, noise, and artifact) were compared. Breath-hold times for IS SENSE (3.0 ± 0.6 s) and TSENSE (3.3 ± 0.6) were both reduced relative to GRAPPA (8.4 ± 1.7 s, p < 0.001). No difference in quantitative cardiac function was present between the three techniques (p = 0.89 for ejection fraction). GRAPPA and IS SENSE had similar image quality (4.7 ± 0.4 vs. 4.5 ± 0.6, p = 0.09) while, both techniques were superior to TSENSE (quality: 4.1 ± 0.7, p < 0.001). GRAPPA WMA agreement with IS SENSE was good (κ > 0.60, p < 0.001), while agreement with TSENSE was poor (κ < 0.40, p < 0.001). IS SENSE is a viable clinical CMR acceleration approach to reduce acquisition times while maintaining satisfactory qualitative and quantitative performance.

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Correspondence to Bradley D. Allen.

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Authors MOZ, MS, MSN, and BS are employees of Siemens Healthcare. Authors BA, MC, MPFB, AAR, MM, JDC, and JCC all declare no conflicts of interest.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study except in cases where informed consent was waived by the local institutional review board.

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Allen, B.D., Carr, M., Botelho, M.P.F. et al. Highly accelerated cardiac MRI using iterative SENSE reconstruction: initial clinical experience. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 32, 955–963 (2016).

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  • Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
  • Accelerated MRI
  • Cardiac gated imaging techniques
  • Ventricular function