Advertisement

Lifetime recreational physical activity and the risk of prostate cancer

  • Elizabeth Sorial
  • Si Si
  • Lin Fritschi
  • Ellie Darcey
  • Justine E. Leavy
  • Jennifer Girschik
  • Gina L. Ambrosini
  • Terry BoyleEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Purpose

Research on the association between physical activity and the risk of prostate cancer is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the timing, intensity, and type of recreational physical activity influence prostate cancer risk.

Methods

A population-based case–control study was conducted in Western Australia in 2001–2002. Data were collected on lifetime recreational physical activity from a self-reported questionnaire. The estimated effects of recreational physical activity on prostate cancer risk were analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors. This analysis included 569 incident cases and 443 controls.

Results

There was a significant, inverse dose–response relationship between vigorous-intensity recreational physical activity between the ages 19 and 34 years and the risk of prostate cancer (pTrend = 0.013). Participants in the most active quartile of vigorous-intensity physical activity in this age period had a 33% lower risk of prostate cancer than participants in the least active quartile (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval = 0.45–1.01). Moderate-intensity recreational physical activity was not associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Recreational physical activity performed over the lifetime showed no association with prostate cancer risk. Weight training performed from early adulthood onwards showed a non-significant but consistent inverse association with prostate cancer risk. There was no strong evidence that physical activity was differentially associated with the risks of low-grade and medium-to-high grade prostate cancers.

Conclusions

A high level of vigorous recreational physical activity in early adulthood may be required to reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

Keywords

Prostate cancer Physical activity Epidemiology Resistance training 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Prostate Health Study was funded by a Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation (Healthway) Research Project Grant and the BUPA Foundation. Lin Fritschi and Terry Boyle were supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (Fellowship #37614900 to LF; Early Career Fellowship #1072266 to TB). The authors acknowledge Professor Anna Timperio’s contribution to the Prostate Health Study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Supplementary material

10552_2019_1138_MOESM1_ESM.docx (29 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 28 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Attard G, Parker C, Eeles RA, Schröder F, Tomlins SA, Tannock I et al (2016) Prostate cancer. The Lancet 387:70–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bostwick DG, Burke HB, Djakiew D, Euling S, Ho S-m, Landolph J et al (2004) Human prostate cancer risk factors. Cancer 101:2371–2490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2017) Prostate cancer. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu YP, Hu FL, Li DD, Wang F, Zhu L, Chen WY et al (2011) Does physical activity reduce the risk of prostate cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol 60:1029–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shephard RJ (2017) Physical activity and prostate cancer: an updated review. Sports Med 47:1055–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Young-McCaughan S (2012) Potential for prostate cancer prevention through physical activity. World J Urol 30:167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Benke IN, Leitzmann MF, Behrens G, Schmid D (2018) Physical activity in relation to risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Oncol 29:1154–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boyle T (2012) Physical activity and colon cancer: timing, intensity and sedentary behavior. Am J Lifestyle Med 6:204–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lynch BM, Neilson HK, Friedenreich CM (2011) Physical activity and breast cancer prevention. Recent Results Cancer Res 186:13–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Littman AJ, Kristal AR, White E (2006) Recreational physical activity and prostate cancer risk (United States). Cancer Causes Control 17:831–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moore SC, Peters TM, Ahn J, Park Y, Schatzkin A, Albanes D et al (2009) Age-specific physical activity and prostate cancer risk among White men and Black men. Cancer 115:5060–5070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pierotti B, Altieri A, Talamini R, Montella M, Tavani A, Negri E et al (2005) Lifetime physical activity and prostate cancer risk. Int J Cancer 114:639–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bairati I, Larouche R, Meyer F, Moore L, Fradet Y (2000) Lifetime occupational physical activity and incidental prostate cancer (Canada). Cancer Causes Control 11:759–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Orsini N, Bellocco R, Bottai M, Pagano M, Andersson SO, Johansson JE et al (2009) A prospective study of lifetime physical activity and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Br J Cancer 101:1932–1938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leitzmann MF (2011) Physical activity and genitourinary cancer prevention. Recent Results Cancer Res 186:43–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stamatakis E, Lee I-M, Bennie J, Freeston J, Hamer M, O’Donovan G et al (2018) Does strength promoting exercise confer unique health benefits? A pooled analysis of eleven population cohorts with all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality endpoints. Am J Epidemiol 187:1102–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kraschnewski JL, Sciamanna CN, Poger JM, Rovniak LS, Lehman EB, Cooper AB et al (2016) Is strength training associated with mortality benefits? A 15 year cohort study of US older adults. Prev Med 87:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boyle T, Bull F, Fritschi L, Heyworth J (2012) Resistance training and the risk of colon and rectal cancers. Cancer Causes Control 23:1091–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fritschi L, Glass DC, Tabrizi JS, Leavy JE, Ambrosini GL (2007) Occupational risk factors for prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case–control study in Western Australia. Occup Environ Med 64:60–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ambrosini GL, Fritschi L, de Klerk NH, Mackerras D, Leavy J (2008) Dietary patterns identified using factor analysis and prostate cancer risk: a case control study in Western Australia. Ann Epidemiol 18:364–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chasan-Taber L, Erickson JB, McBride JW, Nasca PC, Chasan-Taber S, Freedson PS (2002) Reproducibility of a self-administered lifetime physical activity questionnaire among female college alumnae. Am J Epidemiol 155:282–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kriska AM, Sandler RB, Cauley JA, LaPorte RE, Hom DL, Pambianco G (1988) The assessment of historical physical activity and its relation to adult bone parameters. Am J Epidemiol 127:1053–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    De Vera MA, Ratzlaff C, Doerfling P, Kopec J (2010) Reliability and validity of an internet-based questionnaire measuring lifetime physical activity. Am J Epidemiol 172:1190–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett DR Jr, Tudor-Locke C et al (2011) 2011 Compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:1575–1581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Greenland S, Pearl J, Robins JM (1999) Causal diagrams for epidemiologic research. Epidemiology 10:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013) Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australia, 2011. Catalogue Number 2033.0.55.001. Australian Bureau of Statistics, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sutcliffe S, Colditz GA (2013) Prostate cancer: is it time to expand the research focus to early-life exposures? Nat Rev Cancer 13:208–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public HealthCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Genetic Origins of Health and Disease, School of Biomedical ScienceCurtin University and The University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  3. 3.Epidemiology BranchDepartment of Health Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  4. 4.School of Population and Global HealthThe University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  5. 5.Australian Centre for Precision Health, School of Health SciencesUniversity of South Australia Cancer Research InstituteAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations