Ingratiating with Despotic Leaders to Gain Status: The Role of Power Distance Orientation and Self-enhancement Motive

  • Dirk De ClercqEmail author
  • Tasneem Fatima
  • Sadia Jahanzeb
Original Paper


This study adds to business ethics research by investigating how employees’ exposure to despotic leadership might influence their peer-rated workplace status, along with a mediating role of ingratiatory behavior targeted at supervisors and a moderating role of their power distance orientation and self-enhancement motive. Multisource, three-wave data from employees and their peers in Pakistani organizations reveal that exposure to despotic leaders spurs employees’ upward ingratiatory behavior, and this behavior in turn can help them attain higher status in the organization. The mediating role of upward ingratiatory behavior also is more prominent among employees with higher levels of power distance orientation and self-enhancement motive. For business ethics scholars, this study thus pinpoints a potentially dangerous pathway—featuring employees’ deliberate efforts to impress self-centered, destructive supervisors—by which despotic leadership can generate beneficial outcomes for employees but not for the organization, as well as how this process varies due to key personal characteristics.


Despotic leadership Ingratiatory behavior Workplace status Power distance orientation Self-enhancement motive Conservation of resources theory 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


  1. Aguinis, H., Nesler, M. S., Hosoda, M., & Tedeschi, J. T. (1994). The use of influence tactics in persuasion. Journal of Social Psychology,134, 429–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  3. Aronson, E. (2001). Integrating leadership styles and ethical perspectives. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences,18, 244–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashforth, B. (1994). Petty tyranny in organizations. Human Relations,47, 755–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Auh, S., Menguc, B., Spyropoulou, S., & Wang, F. (2016). Service employee burnout and engagement: The moderating role of power distance orientation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,44, 726–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barry, M., & Wilkinson, A. (2016). Pro-social or pro-management? A critique of the conception of employee voice as a pro-social behaviour within organizational behaviour. British Journal of Industrial Relation,54, 261–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolino, M. C., Klotz, A. C., & Daniels, D. (2014). The impact of impression management over time. Journal of Managerial Psychology,29, 266–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bolino, M. C., Varela, J. A., Bande, B., & Turnley, W. H. (2006). The impact of impression management tactics on supervisor ratings of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior,27, 281–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouckenooghe, D., De Clercq, D., & Raja, U. (2019). A person-centered, latent profile analysis of psychological capital. Australian Journal of Management,44, 91–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Braun, S., & Peus, C. (2018). Crossover of work–life balance perceptions: Does authentic leadership matter? Journal of Business Ethics,149, 875–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Capezio, A., Wang, L., Restubog, S. L. D., Garcia, P. R. J. M., & Lu, V. N. (2017). To flatter or to assert? Gendered reactions to Machiavellian leaders. Journal of Business Ethics,141, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Castilla, E. J. (2008). Gender, race, and meritocracy in organizational careers. American Journal of Sociology,113, 1479–1526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Choi, W., Kim, S. L., & Yun, S. (2019). A social exchange perspective of abusive supervision and knowledge sharing: Investigating the moderating effects of psychological contract fulfillment and self-enhancement motive. Journal of Business and Psychology,34, 305–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chow, I. H. S., Ng, I., & Gong, Y. Y. (2012). Risk-taking and relational perspective on turnover intentions. The International Journal of Human Resource Management,23, 779–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O. L. H., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology,86, 425–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Covin, J. G., Green, K. M., & Slevin, D. P. (2006). Strategic process effects on the entrepreneurial orientation-sales growth rate relationship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice,30, 57–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cullen, K. L., Fan, J., & Liu, C. (2014). Employee popularity mediates the relationship between political skill and workplace interpersonal mistreatment. Journal of Management,40, 1760–1778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Clercq, D., & Belausteguigoitia, I. (2017). Overcoming the dark side of task conflict: Buffering roles of transformational leadership, tenacity, and passion for work. European Management Journal,35, 78–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Clercq, D., Haq, I. U., Raja, U., Azeem, M. U., & Mahmud, N. (2018). When is an Islamic work ethic more likely to spur helping behavior? The roles of despotic leadership and gender. Personnel Review,47, 630–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. De Hoogh, A. H. B., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2008). Ethical and despotic leadership, relationships with leader’s social responsibility, top management team effectiveness and subordinates’ optimism: A multi-method study. The Leadership Quarterly,19, 297–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Hoogh, A. H. B., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2009). Neuroticism and locus of control as moderators of the relationships of charismatic and autocratic leadership with burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology,94, 1058–1067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Decoster, S., Stouten, J., Camps, J., & Tripp, T. (2014). The role of employees’ OCB and leaders’ hindrance stress in the emergence of self-serving leadership. Leadership Quarterly,25, 647–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deng, H., & Leung, K. (2014). Contingent punishment as a double-edged sword: A dual pathway model from a sense-making perspective. Personnel Psychology,67, 951–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DiPrete, T. A., & Soule, W. T. (1988). Gender and promotion in segmented job ladder systems. American Sociological Review,53, 26–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Djurdjevic, E., Stoverink, A. C., Klotz, A. C., Koopman, J., da Motta Veiga, S. P., & Yam, K. C. (2017). Workplace status: The development and validation of a scale. Journal of Applied Psychology,102, 1124–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Earley, P. C., & Erez, M. (1997). The transplanted executive: Why you need to understand how workers in other countries see the world differently. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Einarsen, S., Aasland, M. S., & Skogstad, A. (2007). Destructive leadership behaviour: A definition and conceptual model. The Leadership Quarterly,18, 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Emerson, R. M. (1981). Social exchange theory. In M. Rosenberg & R. H. Turner (Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives. New York: Basic Books Inc.Google Scholar
  29. Farh, J. L., Hackett, R. D., & Liang, J. (2007). Individual-level cultural values as moderators of perceived organizational support–employee outcome relationships in China: Comparing the effects of power distance and traditionality. Academy of Management Journal,50, 715–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fehr, R., & Gelfand, M. J. (2012). The forgiving organization: A multilevel model of forgiveness at work. Academy of Management Review,37, 664–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ferris, G. R., Perrewé, P. L., Anthony, W. P., & Gilmore, D. C. (2000). Political skill at work. Organizational Dynamics,28, 25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ferris, G. R., Zinko, R., Brouer, R. L., Buckley, M. R., & Harvey, M. G. (2007). Strategic bullying as a supplementary, balanced perspective on destructive leadership. Leadership Quarterly,18, 195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fisicaro, S. A. (1988). A reexamination of the relation between halo error and accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology,73, 239–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Floyd, S. W., & Wooldridge, B. (1997). Middle management’s strategic influence and organizational performance. Journal of Management Studies,34, 465–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Geertshuis, S. A., Morrison, R. L., & Cooper-Thomas, H. D. (2015). It’s not what you say, it’s the way that you say it: The mediating effect of upward influencing communications on the relationship between leader-member exchange and performance ratings. International Journal of Business Communication,52, 228–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gentry, W. A., Eckert, R. H., Munusamy, V. P., Stawiski, S. A., & Martin, J. L. (2014). The needs of participants in leadership development programs: A qualitative and quantitative cross-country investigation. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies,21, 83–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Georgalis, J., Samaratunge, R., Kimberley, N., & Lu, Y. (2015). Change process characteristics and resistance to organisational change: The role of employee perceptions of justice. Australian Journal of Management,40, 89–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gordon, R. A. (1996). Impact of ingratiation on judgments and evaluations: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,71, 54–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Graham, K. A., Dust, S. B., & Ziegert, J. C. (2018). Supervisor-employee power distance incompatibility, gender similarity, and relationship conflict: A test of interpersonal interaction theory. Journal of Applied Psychology,103, 334–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Greenbaum, R. L., Mawritz, M. B., & Piccolo, R. F. (2015). When leaders fail to “walk the talk”: Supervisor undermining and perceptions of leader hypocrisy. Journal of Management,41, 929–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Guzman, F. A., & Espejo, A. (2015). Dispositional and situational differences in motives to engage in citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Research,68, 208–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harris, K. J., Kacmar, K. M., Zivnuska, S., & Shaw, J. D. (2007). The impact of political skill on impression management effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology,92, 278–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harrison, T. R., Hopeck, P., Desrayaud, M., & Imboden, K. (2013). The relationship between conflict, anticipatory procedural justice, and design with intensions to use ombudsman processes. International Journal of Conflict Management,24, 56–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs,76, 408–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hayes, A. F. (2015). An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research,50, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Higgins, C., Judge, T., & Ferris, G. R. (2003). Influence tactics and work outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior,24, 89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources. A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist,44, 513–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hobfoll, S. E. (2001). The influence of culture, community, and the nested-self in the stress process: Advancing conservation of resource theory. Applied Psychology: An International Review,50, 337–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology,6, 307–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hobfoll, S. E., & Shirom, A. (2000). Conservation of resources theory: Applications to stress and management in the workplace. In R. T. Golembiewski (Ed.), Handbook of organization behavior (2nd ed., pp. 57–81). New York: Dekker.Google Scholar
  52. Hofstede, G. H., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  53. Hou, X., Li, W., & Yuan, Q. (2018). Frontline disruptive leadership and new generation employees’ innovative behaviour in China: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Asia Pacific Business Review,24, 459–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Howell, J. M., & Boies, K. (2004). Champions of technological innovation: The influence of contextual knowledge, role orientation, idea generation and idea promotion on champion emergence. Leadership Quarterly,15, 123–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jones, E. E., & Pittman, T. S. (1982). Toward a general theory of strategic self presentation. In J. Suls (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 1, pp. 231–262). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  56. Kacmar, K. M., Carlson, D. S., & Bratton, V. K. (2004). Situational and dispositional factors as antecedents of ingratiatory behaviors in organizational setting. Journal of Vocational Behavior,65, 309–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kacmar, K. M., & Valle, M. (1997). Dimensionality of the measure of ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings (MIBOS) scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement,57, 314–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Khan, A. K., Moss, S., Quratulain, S., & Hameed, I. (2016). When and how subordinate performance leads to abusive supervision: A social dominance perspective. Journal of Management. Scholar
  59. Kim, S. L., Lee, S., & Yun, S. (2016). Abusive supervision, knowledge sharing, and individual factors. Journal of Managerial Psychology,31, 1106–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kirkman, B. L., Chen, G., Farh, J.-L., Chen, Z. X., & Lowe, K. B. (2009). Individual power distance orientation and follower reactions to transformational leaders: A cross-level, cross-cultural examination. Academy of Management Journal,52, 744–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Krasikova, D., Green, S. G., & LeBreton, J. M. (2013). Destructive leadership: A theoretical review, integration, and future research agenda. Journal of Management,39, 1308–1338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kumar, K., & Beyerlein, M. (1991). Construction and validation of an instrument for measuring ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings. Journal of Applied Psychology,76, 619–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kwang, T., & Swann, W. B. (2010). Do people embrace praise even when they feel unworthy? A review of critical tests of self-enhancement versus self-verification. Personality and Social Psychology Review,14, 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lefkowitz, J. (2000). The role of interpersonal affective regard in supervisory performance: Literature review and proposed causal model. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,73, 67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Levy, D. A., Collins, B. E., & Nail, P. R. (1998). A new model of interpersonal influence characteristics. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality,13, 715–735.Google Scholar
  66. Li, S.-L., He, W., Yam, K. C., & Long, L.-R. (2015). When and why empowering leadership increases followers’ taking charge: A multilevel examination in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management,32, 645–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Li, Y., & Sun, J.-M. (2015). Traditional Chinese leadership and employee voice behavior: A cross-level examination. The Leadership Quarterly,26, 172–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lian, H., Ferns, D. L., & Brown, D. J. (2012). Does power distance exacerbate or mitigate the effects of abusive supervision? It depends on the outcome. Journal of Applied Psychology,97, 107–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Liang, J., Farh, C. I. C., & Farh, J. (2012). Psychological antecedents of promotive and problem-focused voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal,55, 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Liden, R. C., & Mitchell, T. R. (1988). Ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review,13, 572–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lin, W., Wang, L., & Chen, S. (2013). Abusive supervision and employee well-being: The moderating effect of power distance orientation. Applied Psychology: An International Review,62, 308–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lok, P., & Crawford, J. (2004). The effect of organisational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organisational commitment: A cross-national comparison. Journal of Management Development,23, 321–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lukacik, E.-R., & Bourdage, J. S. (2018). Exploring the influence of abusive and ethical leadership on supervisor and coworker-targeted impression management. Journal of Business and Psychology. Scholar
  74. Luo, X., Slotegraaf, R. J., & Pan, X. (2006). Cross-functional “coopetition”: The simultaneous role of cooperation and competition within firms. Journal of Marketing,70, 67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Luu, T. T. (2013). Corporate social responsibility, upward influence behavior, team processes and competitive intelligence. Team Performance Management,19, 6–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lvina, E., Johns, G., & Vandenberghe, C. (2018). Team political skill composition as a determinant of team cohesiveness and performance. Journal of Management,44, 1001–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research,39, 99–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Malodia, L. (2013). Influence of employees’ ingratiation on organizational citizenship behavior: An empirical study. Business Perspectives and Research,1, 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Naseer, S., Raja, U., Syed, F., Donia, M. B. L., & Darr, W. (2016). Perils of being close to a bad leader in a bad environment: Exploring the combined effects of despotic leadership, leader member exchange, and perceived organizational politics on behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly,27, 14–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pandey, J. (1981). Effects of Machiavellianism and degree of organizational formalization on ingratiation. Psychologia,24, 41–46.Google Scholar
  81. Park, J. H., Carter, M. Z., DeFrank, R. S., & Deng, Q. (2018). Abusive supervision, psychological distress, and silence: The effects of gender dissimilarity between supervisors and subordinates. Journal of Business Ethics,153, 775–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pearce, J. L. (2011). Introduction: The power of status. In J. L. Pearce (Ed.), Status in management and organizations (pp. 1–22). Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Assessing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research,42, 185–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Quinn, R. W., Spreitzer, G. M., & Lam, C. F. (2012). Building a sustainable model of human energy in organizations: Exploring the critical role of resources. Academy of Management Annals,6, 337–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Roberson, L., Galvin, B. M., & Charles, A. C. (2007). When group identities matter: Bias in performance appraisal. In J. P. Walsh & A. P. Brief (Eds.), Academy of management annals (Vol. 1, pp. 617–650). Philadelphia, PA: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  87. Rose, K., Shuck, B., Twyford, D., & Bergman, M. (2015). Skunked: An integrative review exploring the consequences of the dysfunctional leader and implications for those employees who work for them. Human Resource Development Review,14, 64–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rus, D., van Knippenberg, D., & Wisse, B. (2010). Leader self-definition and leader self-serving behavior. Leadership Quarterly,21, 509–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist,55(1), 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sadler-Smith, E., Robinson, G., Akstinaite, V., & Wray, T. (2019). Hubristic leadership: Understanding the hazard and mitigating the risks. Organizational Dynamics,48, 8–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schaubroeck, J. M., Shen, Y., & Chong, S. (2017). A dual-stage moderated mediation model linking authoritarian leadership to follower outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology,102, 203–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schilling, J. (2009). From ineffectiveness to destruction: A qualitative study on the meaning of negative leadership. Leadership,5, 102–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Scott, B. A., & Judge, T. A. (2009). The popularity contest at work: Who wins, why, and what do they receive? Journal of Applied Psychology,94, 20–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Scott, K. L., Tams, S., Schippers, M. C., & Lee, K. Y. (2015). Opening the black box: Why and when workplace exclusion affects social reconnection behaviour, health, and attitudes. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology,24, 239–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Seckyoung, L. K., Lee, S., & Yun, S. (2016). Abusive supervision, knowledge sharing, and individual factors. Journal of Managerial Psychology,31, 1106–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods,7, 422–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sibunruang, H., & Tolentino, L. R. (2016). Ingratiation as an adapting strategy: Its relationship with career adaptability, career sponsorship, and promotability. Journal of Vocational Behavior,92, 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Smith, R. H., & Kim, S. H. (2007). Comprehending envy. Psychological Bulletin,133, 46–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Spector, P. E. (2006). Method variance in organizational research: Truth or urban legend? Organizational Research Methods,9, 221–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stern, I., & Westphal, J. D. (2010). Stealthy footsteps to the boardroom: Executives’ backgrounds, sophisticated interpersonal influence behavior, and board appointments. Administrative Science Quarterly,55, 278–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Studenmund, A. H. (1992). Using econometrics: A practical guide. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  102. Sumanth, J. J., & Cable, D. M. (2011). Status and organizational entry: How organizational and individual career status affect justice perceptions of hiring systems. Personnel Psychology,64, 963–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tepper, B. J. (2000). Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal,43, 178–190.Google Scholar
  104. Thoroughgood, C. N., Hunter, S. T., & Sawyer, K. B. (2011). Bad apples, bad barrels, and broken followers? An empirical examination of contextual influences on follower perceptions and reactions to aversive leadership. Journal of Business Ethics,100, 647–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Thoroughgood, C. N., Sawyer, K. B., Padilla, A., & Lunsford, L. (2018). Destructive leadership: A critique of leader-centric perspectives and toward a more holistic definition. Journal of Business Ethics,151, 627–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Turnley, W. H., & Bolino, M. C. (2001). Achieving desired images while avoiding undesired images: Exploring the role of self-monitoring in impression management. Journal of Applied Psychology,86, 351–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tyler, T. R., Lind, E. A., & Huo, Y. J. (2000). Cultural values and authority relations: The psychology of conflict resolution across cultures. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law,6, 1138–1163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Umamaheswara, R. J., & Mukhopadhyay, S. (2019). Understanding the effects of empowering, transformational and ethical leadership on promotive and prohibitive voice. Personnel Review,48, 707–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Watt, J. D. (1993). The impact of the frequency of ingratiation on the performance evaluation of bank personnel. Journal of Psychology,127, 171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wei, F., & Si, S. (2013). Tit for tat? Abusive supervision and counterproductive work behaviors: The moderating effects of locus of control and perceived mobility. Asia Pacific Journal of Management,30, 281–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wu, W.-L., & Lee, Y.-C. (2016). Do employees share knowledge when encountering abusive supervision? Journal of Managerial Psychology,31, 154–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Xu, A. J., Loi, R., & Lam, L. W. (2015). The bad boss takes it all: How abusive supervision and leader-member exchange interact to influence employee silence. The Leadership Quarterly,26, 763–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yun, S., Takeuchi, R., & Liu, W. (2007). Employee self-enhancement motives and job performance behaviors: Investigating the moderating effects of employee role ambiguity and managerial perceptions of employee commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology,92, 745–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zahra, S., & Hayton, J. C. (2008). The effect of international venturing on firm performance: The moderating influence of absorptive capacity. Journal of Business Venturing,23, 195–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhang, L., Deng, Y., Zhang, X., & Hu, E. (2016). Why do Chinese employees build supervisor-subordinate guanxi? A motivational analysis. Asia Pacific Journal of Management,33, 617–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhang, Y., & Xie, Y.-H. (2017). Authoritarian leadership and extra-role behaviors: A role-perception perspective. Management and Organization Review,13, 147–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dirk De Clercq
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tasneem Fatima
    • 3
  • Sadia Jahanzeb
    • 4
  1. 1.Goodman School of BusinessBrock UniversitySt. CatharinesCanada
  2. 2.Small Business Research CentreKingston UniversityKingston-Upon-ThamesUK
  3. 3.Faculty of Management SciencesInternational Islamic UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  4. 4.Business (Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences)Memorial University of Newfoundland (Grenfell Campus)NewfoundlandCanada

Personalised recommendations