Emancipatory Ethical Social Media Campaigns: Fostering Relationship Harmony and Peace

  • Arsalan Mujahid Ghouri
  • Pervaiz AkhtarEmail author
  • Maya Vachkova
  • Muhammad Shahbaz
  • Aviral Kumar Tiwari
  • Dayananda Palihawadana
Original Paper


While emancipatory ethical social media campaigns play an imperative role for fostering relationship and facilitating peace, limited research has examined the motivational response from peace-promoting viral videos. This research scrutinizes the effects of a viral video titled “Peace Anthem”: a mash-up between Pakistani and Indian national anthems, performed by famous artists and broadcasted in the wake of Independence Day in India and Pakistan. We examine the effect of listening to the anthem medley on relationship harmony using a longitudinal study design and contribute to the burgeoning body of knowledge on peace music and relational musicology fostering relationship harmony. Study 1, consisting of 1048 cases, determines the effects of the likeability of the “Peace Anthem” and education on relationship harmony, and it also examines the moderating role of education. Study 2 with 605 cases investigates the persistency of these effects over time. The results demonstrate significant relationships between the likeability of the “Peace Anthem” and education with relationship harmony, as well as validate the moderating role of education. Although these effects decrease over time, there are noteworthy changes that consequently call for the persistence of ethical social media campaigns for stimulating peace. We discuss the policy implications of these findings and conclude with study limitations and recommendations for further research.


Peace music Relationship harmony Emancipatory ethics Social media campaigns 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All Authors involved in this study declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

The informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Ahmed, I. (2002). The 1947 partition of India: A paradigm for pathological politics in India and Pakistan. Asian Ethnicity, 3(1), 9–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akhtar, P., Khan, Z., Rao-Nicholson, R., & Zhang, M. (2016). Building relationship innovation in global collaborative partnerships: Big data analytics and traditional organizational powers. R&D Management., 49(1), 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bardzell, J., Bardzell, S., & Pace, T. (2008). Emotion, engagement and internet video. Emotion, 417–443.Google Scholar
  4. Barongan, C., & Hall, G. C. N. (1995). The influence of misogynous rap music on sexual aggression against women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19(2), 195–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergh, A., & Sloboda, J. (2010). Music and art in conflict transformation: A review. Music and Arts in Action, 2(2), 2–18.Google Scholar
  6. Blair, I. V., & Banaji, M. R. (1996). Automatic and controlled processes in stereotype priming. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(6), 1142–1163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boltz, M. G., Ebendorf, B., & Field, B. (2009). Audiovisual interactions: The impact of visual information on music perception and memory. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 27(1), 43–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Booth, K. (2007). Theory of world security (p. 8). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bratić, V. (2006). Media effects during violent conflict: Evaluating media contributions to peace building. Conflict & Communication, 5(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, S. P., & Stayman, D. M. (1992). Antecedents and consequences of attitude toward the ad: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(1), 34–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Broxton, T., Interian, Y., Vaver, J., & Wattenhofer, M. (2013). Catching a viral video. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, 40(2), 241–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cerulo, K. A. (1993). Symbols and the world system: National anthems and flags. Sociological Forum, 8(2), 243–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chan, B., Choy, G., & Lee, A. (2009). Harmony as the basis for education for sustainable development: A case example of Yew Chung International Schools. International Journal of Early Childhood, 41(2), 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chickering, A. W., & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Chiu, C. Y., Leung, A. K., & Hong, Y. Y. (2011). Cultural processes: A social psychological perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Chu, S. C. (2011). Viral advertising in social media: Participation in Facebook groups and responses among college-aged users. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 12(1), 30–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clarke, E., DeNora, T., & Vuoskoski, J. (2015). Music, empathy and cultural understanding. Physics of Life Reviews, 15, 61–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coates, J., Gray, M., & Hetherington, T. (2006). An ‘ecospiritual’ perspective: Finally, a place for indigenous approaches. British Journal of Social Work, 36(3), 381–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  20. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2013). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cole, C. F., Arafat, C., Tidhar, C., Tafesh, W. Z., Fox, N. A., Killen, M., et al. (2003). The educational impact of Rechov Sumsum/Shara’a Simsim: A Sesame Street television series to promote respect and understanding among children living in Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(5), 409–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cook, N. (2010). Intercultural analysis as relational musicology. In First Conference on Analytical Approaches to World Music, University of Massachusetts Amherst, February (pp. 19–21).Google Scholar
  23. Corte, U., & Edwards, B. (2008). White Power music and the mobilization of racist social movements. Music and Arts in Action, 1(1), 4–20.Google Scholar
  24. Cusick, S. G. (2008). You are in a place that is out of the world: Music in the detention camps of the ‘global war on terror’. Journal of the Society for American Music, 2(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. D’Amore, L. (2009). Peace through tourism: The birthing of a new socio-economic order. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(4), 559–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dean, D. & Shabbir, H. A. (2019, forthcoming). Handbook of Propaganda Research, SAGE.Google Scholar
  27. DeNora, T. (2005). The pebble in the pond: Musicing, therapy, community. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 14(1), 57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dijkstra, T. K., & Henseler, J. (2015). Consistent and asymptotically normal PLS estimators for linear structural equations. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 81(1), 10–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dingli, S. (2015). We need to talk about silence: Re-examining silence in International Relations theory. European Journal of International Relations, 21(4), 721–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Doney, P. M., & Cannon, J. P. (1997). An examination of the nature of trust in buyer-seller relationships. The Journal of Marketing, 61(2), 35–51.Google Scholar
  31. Eckler, P., & Bolls, P. (2011). Spreading the virus: Emotional tone of viral advertising and its effect on forwarding intentions and attitudes. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 11(2), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eyerman, R., & Jamison, A. (1998). Music and social movements: Mobilizing traditions in the twentieth century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Feshbach, S. (1994). Nationalism, patriotism, and aggression. In L. R. Huesmann (Ed.), Aggressive behavior (pp. 275–291). Boston, MA: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Finlayson, A., & Hughes, E. (2000). Advertising for peace: The state and political advertising in Northern Ireland, 1988‐1998. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, 20(3), 397–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fornell, C. (1982). A second generation of multivarite analysis. New York: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Foster, W. M., & Wiebe, E. (2010). Praxis makes perfect: Recovering the ethical promise of critical management studies. Journal of Business Ethics, 94(2), 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (1993). How to design and evaluate research in education (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  38. Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. F., Nier, J. A., Ward, C. M., & Banker, B. S. (1999). Across cultural divides: the value of a superordinate identity. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  39. Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, peace, and peace research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Galtung, J. (1981). Social cosmology and the concept of peace. Journal of Peace Research, 18(2), 183–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Galtung, J. (2008). Peace, music and the arts: in search of interconnections. In O. Urbain (Ed.), Music and conflict transformation: Harmonies and dissonances in geopolitics (pp. 53–59). New York: Toda Institute.Google Scholar
  42. Galtung, J. (2013). Peace, memory and education research. International Journal of Educational Researchers, 4(3), 22–23.Google Scholar
  43. Garlin, F. V., & Owen, K. (2006). Setting the tone with the tune: A meta-analytic review of the effects of background music settings. Journal of Business Research, 59(6), 755–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gidron, B., Katz, S., Meyer, M., Hasenfeld, Y., Schwartz, R., & Crane, J. K. (1999). Peace and conflict resolution organizations in three protracted conflicts: Structures, resources and ideology. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 10(4), 275–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gilboa, A., & Bodner, E. (2009). What are your thoughts when the national anthem is playing? An empirical exploration. Psychology of Music, 37(4), 459–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Green, T., Sinclair, G., & Tinson, J. (2016). Do they know it’s CSR at all? An exploration of socially responsible music consumption. Journal of Business Ethics, 138(2), 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Greitemeyer, T. (2009). Effects of songs with prosocial lyrics on prosocial thoughts, affect, and behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(1), 186–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hagos, A. (2001). Media intervention in peace building in Burundi-The Studio Ijambo experience and impact. Washington DC: Management Systems International.Google Scholar
  49. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  50. Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Haugh, H. M., & Talwar, A. (2016). Linking social entrepreneurship and social change: The mediating role of empowerment. Journal of Business Ethics, 133(4), 643–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., et al. (2014). Common beliefs and reality about PLS: Comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 182–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hetland, L. (2000). Learning to make music enhances spatial reasoning. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(3/4), 179–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hoffmann, J., & Hawkins, V. (Eds.). (2015). Communication and peace: Mapping an emerging field. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Huang, W. H. D., Hood, D. W., & Yoo, S. J. (2013). Gender divide and acceptance of collaborative Web 2.0 applications for learning in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 16, 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kent, G. (2008). Unpeaceful music. In O. Urbain (Ed.), Music and conflict transformation: Harmonies and dissonances in geopolitics (pp. 105–111). New York: Toda Institute.Google Scholar
  58. King, R. (2014). Pursuing songs of peace and reconciliation. In W. A. Dyrness & N. Syeed-Miller (Eds.), (un) Common sounds: Songs of peace and reconciliation among Muslims and Christians. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers.Google Scholar
  59. Kitzinger, J. (2004). Framing abuse: Media influence and public understanding of sexual violence against children. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  60. Korostelina, K. (2010). War of textbooks: History education in Russia and Ukraine. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 43(2), 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lauwo, S. (2018). Challenging masculinity in CSR disclosures: Silencing of women’s voices in Tanzania’s mining industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 149(3), 689–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lavine, M. (2009). From scholarly dialogue to social movement: Considerations and implications for peace through commerce. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(4), 603–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lehnert, K., Till, B. D., & Carlson, B. D. (2013). Advertising creativity and repetition: Recall, wearout and wearin effects. International Journal of Advertising, 32(2), 211–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Levy, S. E., & Hawkins, D. E. (2009). Peace through tourism: Commerce based principles and practices. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(4), 569–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Liu-Thompkins, Y. (2012). Seeding viral content: The role of message and network factors. Journal of Advertising Research, 52(4), 465–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mackenzie, S. (2003). In harmony, The Guardian, 5 April. Retrieved from (Accessed 8 October 2018).
  67. Matthes, J., & Schmuck, D. (2017). The effects of anti-immigrant right-wing populist ads on implicit and explicit attitudes: A moderated mediation model. Communication Research, 44(4), 556–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McDonald, M. (2007). Emancipation and critical terrorism studies. European Political Science, 6(3), 252–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McDonald, D. (2009). Carrying words like weapons: Hiphop and the poetics of Palestinian identities in Israel. Israeli Studies in Musicology, 7(2), 116–130.Google Scholar
  70. McLeod, K. (2006). “We are the Champions”: Masculinities, sports and popular music. Popular Music and Society, 29(5), 531–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mitra, S. K. (2001). War and Peace in South Asia: A revisionist view of India-Pakistan relations. Contemporary South Asia, 10(3), 361–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moore, E., Schaefer, R., Bastin, M., Roberts, N., & Overy, K. (2014). Can musical training influence brain connectivity? Evidence from diffusion tensor MRI. Brain Sciences, 4(2), 405–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Naik, P. A., Mantrala, M. K., & Sawyer, A. G. (1998). Planning media schedules in the presence of dynamic advertising quality. Marketing Science, 17(3), 214–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nedelea, A. M., & Nedelea, M. O. (2015). Peace Marketing. Ecoforum Journal, 4(2), 188–192.Google Scholar
  75. Nel, J. A., Valchev, V. H., Rothmann, S., Vijver, F. J., Meiring, D., & Bruin, G. P. (2012). Exploring the personality structure in the 11 languages of South Africa. Journal of Personality, 80(4), 915–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nguyen, B., Melewar, T. C., & Chen, J. (2013). A framework of brand likeability: An exploratory study of likeability in firm-level brands. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 21(4), 368–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nielsen, R. P. (1993). Woolman’s” I am we” triple-loop action-learning: Origin and application in organization ethics. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 29(1), 117–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.Google Scholar
  79. O’Connell, J. M., & Castelo-Branco, S. E. S. (Eds.). (2010). Music and conflict. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  80. Pettan, S. (1998). Music, politics, and war in Croatia in the 1990 s: An introduction. Zagreb: Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research.Google Scholar
  81. Phillips, G. L. (2004). Can there be “music for peace”? International Journal on World Peace, 21(2), 63–73.Google Scholar
  82. Pless, N. M., Maak, T., & Harris, H. (2017). Art, ethics and the promotion of human dignity. Journal of Business Ethics, 144(2), 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pruitt, L. J. (2013). Youth peacebuilding: Music, gender, and change. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  84. Pulles, N. J., & Hartman, P. (2017). Likeability and its effect on outcomes of interpersonal interaction. Industrial Marketing Management, 66, 56–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ramsbotham, O., Miall, H., & Woodhouse, T. (2011). Contemporary conflict resolution. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  86. Reysen, S. (2005). Construction of a new scale: The Reysen likability scale. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 33(2), 201–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rish, R. M. (2015). Investigating the implications of racelifting: Critical considerations of race in transmedia storytelling. SIGNAL Journal, 37(1), 7–10.Google Scholar
  88. Robb, S. L. (2000). Music assisted progressive muscle relaxation, progressive muscle relaxation, music listening, and silence: A comparison of relaxation techniques. Journal of Music Therapy, 37(1), 2–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Robertson, C. (2010). Music and conflict transformation in Bosnia: Constructing and reconstructing the normal. Music and Arts in Action, 2(2), 38–55.Google Scholar
  90. Rothman, J. (1992). From confrontation to cooperation: Resolving ethnic and regional conflict (Vol. 6). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  91. Sathasivam, K. (2017). Uneasy neighbors: India, Pakistan and US foreign policy. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sen, A. K., & Alderdice, J. (2007). Civil paths to peace: Report of the Commonwealth Commission on Respect and Understanding. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.Google Scholar
  93. Shabbir, H. A. (2017). Peace marketing: Mapping the terrain, Special Session in 50th Academy of Marketing Conference, University of Hull, UK, July 2017. Retrieved from
  94. Shehu, E., Bijmolt, T. H., & Clement, M. (2016). Effects of likeability dynamics on consumers’ intention to share online video advertisements. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 35, 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Social Samosa. (2017). Peace Anthem is a medley of Indian and Pakistani national anthems and has been released, just ahead of both the nation’s Independence Day. Retrieved from
  96. UN News. (2004). Music can make the world a more harmonious place, Annan says. Retrieved from
  97. Urbain, O. (2008). Music and conflict transformation: Harmonies and dissonances in geopolitics. New York: Toda Institute.Google Scholar
  98. Wolfsfeld, G. (2001). The news media and peace processes: The Middle East and Northern Ireland. Washington: United States Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
  99. Yelkur, R., Tomkovick, C., Hofer, A., & Rozumalski, D. (2013). Super Bowl ad likeability: Enduring and emerging predictors. Journal of Marketing Communications, 19(1), 58–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zelizer, C. M. (2003). The role of artistic processes in peacebuilding in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Peace and Conflict Studies, 10(2), 62–75.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arsalan Mujahid Ghouri
    • 1
    • 5
  • Pervaiz Akhtar
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  • Maya Vachkova
    • 3
  • Muhammad Shahbaz
    • 5
  • Aviral Kumar Tiwari
    • 5
  • Dayananda Palihawadana
    • 6
  1. 1.Faculty of Management and EconomyUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan IdrisTanjung MalimMalaysia
  2. 2.Kent Business SchoolUniversity of KentCanterburyUK
  3. 3.Hull University Business SchoolUniversity of HullHullUK
  4. 4.IESEG School of ManagementParisFrance
  5. 5.Montpellier Business SchoolMontpellierFrance
  6. 6.Leeds University Business SchoolLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations