The Influence of Individual Behaviour and Organizational Commitment Towards the Enhancement of Islamic Work Ethics at Royal Malaysian Air Force

  • Wan Norhasniah Wan HusinEmail author
  • Nur Farahana Zul Kernain
Original Paper


This study examines the influences of individual behaviour and organizational commitment towards the enhancement of Islamic Work Ethics (IWE) at the Royal Malaysian Air Force. It involved 312 respondents of different backgrounds and the data were analysed using descriptive analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis. The results show that both individual behaviour and organizational commitment have significantly correlated with the enhancement of IWE. The findings could help managers especially of multinational corporations operating in Muslim countries to enhance the company performances by instituting elements of IWE in their organizations. This can be done by promoting the understanding of IWE and providing a conducive environment to practice it.


Islamic work ethics Individual behaviour Organizational commitment 



This study was funded by Short Term Grant, National Defence University of Malaysia 2015 (J0020-NDUM/2015/STG/SSI/9).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Abbasi, A. S., & Rana, A. H. (2012). Impact of Islamic work ethics, reward system and organizational environment on citizenship behavior of employees. Science International, 24(4), 513–519.Google Scholar
  2. Alanazi, T. M. (2013). The interrelationships among business ethics, organizational culture and attitudes towards strategic growth alternatives of Muslims SMES in the UK. Doctoral dissertation. University of Birmingham.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Ghazali, M. (1997). Ihya’Ulumuddin 2. Karachi: Darul-Ishaat.Google Scholar
  4. Ali, J. A. (1988). Scaling an Islamic work ethic. The Journal of Social Psychology, 128(5), 575–583.Google Scholar
  5. Ali, J. A. (2005). Islamic perspectives on management and organization. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Ali, J. A., & Al-Kazemi, A. A. (2007). Islamic work ethic in Kuwait. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14(2), 93–104.Google Scholar
  7. Almaney, A. (1981). Cultural traits of the Arabs. Management International Review, 21(3), 10–18.Google Scholar
  8. Al-Mansoori, Y. (2012). Islamic work ethics and employee performance in the UAE oil and gas industry (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Dubai: The British University.Google Scholar
  9. Al-Maududi, A. (1967). Islamic way of life. Karachi: Islamic Research Academy.Google Scholar
  10. Attahiru, M. S., Al-Aidaros, H. M. H., & Yusof, S. M. (2016). Relationship between culture and work ethics: The Islamic perspective. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(S7), 282–286.Google Scholar
  11. Beekun, R. I. (1997). Islamic business ethics. International Institute of Islamic Thought. Virginia: Herndon.Google Scholar
  12. Beekun, R. I., & Badawi, J. A. (2005). Balancing ethical responsibility among multiple organizational stakeholders: The Islamic perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 60(2), 131–145.Google Scholar
  13. Buchholz, R. (1978). The work ethic reconsidered. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 31(4), 450–459.Google Scholar
  14. Cherrington, D. J. (1980). The work ethic: Working values and values that work. New York: AMACOM.Google Scholar
  15. Clark, V. L. P., & Creswell, J. W. (2015). Understanding research: A consumer’s guide. New Jersey: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  16. Clercq, D. D., Rahman, Z., & Haq, I. U. (2017). Explaining helping behavior in the workplace: The interactive effect of family-to-work conflict and Islamic work ethic. Journal of Business Ethics, 1–11.Google Scholar
  17. Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  18. Delener, N. (1994). Religious contrast in consumer decision behavior patterns: Their dimensions and marketing implication. European Journal of Marketing, 28, 36–53.Google Scholar
  19. Dibra, R. (2016). Corporate governance failure: The case of Enron and Parmalat. European Scientific Journal, 12(16), 283–290.Google Scholar
  20. Farsi, J. Y., Shiraz, R. P., Rodgarnezhad, F., & Anbardan, Y. Z. (2015). Investigating the relationship between Islamic work ethics and organizational commitment and its components: A case study of Gilan Province police employees. Jurnal UMP Social Sciences and Technology Management, 3(2), 238.Google Scholar
  21. Fischer, R., & Poortinga, Y. H. (2012). Are cultural values the same as the values of individuals? An examination of similarities in personal, social and cultural value structures. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 12(2), 157–170.Google Scholar
  22. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.Google Scholar
  23. Gade, P. A. (2003). Organizational commitment in the military: An overview. Military Psychology, 15(3), 163–166.Google Scholar
  24. Gade, P. A., & Tiggle, R. B. (2003). The measurement and consequences of military organization and commitment in soldiers and spouses. Military Psychology, 15(3), 191–207.Google Scholar
  25. Garner, R. T. (1984). The Encyclopedia Americana 10. Connecticut: Grollier Incorporated.Google Scholar
  26. Geren, B. (2011). The work ethic: Is it universal? Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies, 1–9.Google Scholar
  27. Ghulam, M., Muhammad, A., Usman, R., Olivier, R., Afsheen, K., & Rizwan, M. (2014). Impact of Islamic work ethics on organizational citizenship behaviors and knowledge-sharing behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 133(2), 325–333.Google Scholar
  28. Gwin, R. P. (1985). The Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.Google Scholar
  29. Haider, A., & Nadeem, S. (2014). The relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB): The moderating role of Islamic work ethics (IWE). ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 16(1), 95–105.Google Scholar
  30. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publication.Google Scholar
  32. Hassan, M. H. (1986). Dimension of Islamic education. In Islam and society in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southern Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  33. Hayaati, S. I. S., & Arni, B. S. (2002). Efektif Governan berteraskan Etika Kerja Islam di Malaysia. In Seminar Efektif Governan Menurut Perspektif Islam Peringkat Kebangsaan. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Malaya.Google Scholar
  34. Hayati, K., & Caniago, I. (2012). Islamic work ethic: The role of intrinsic motivation, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and job performance. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 65, 272–277.Google Scholar
  35. Heller, F., & Ruiz-Quintanilla, S. A. (1995). The work ethic. Ithaca: Cornell University.Google Scholar
  36. Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling international marketing. In Advances in international marketing. Emerald: Bingley.Google Scholar
  37. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture consequences: International differences in work related values. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  38. Hooker, M. B. (1972). Adat laws in modern Malaya: Land tenure, traditional government and religion. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Husin, W. N. W. (2011). The influence of Budi-Islam values on Tunku Abdul Rahman (Tunku) Leadership. The European Proceedings of Social and Behavioral Sciences. Future Academy (pp. 20–28).Google Scholar
  40. Husin, W. N. W. (2012). Work ethics from the Islamic perspective in Malaysia. European Journal of Social Sciences, 29(1), 51–61.Google Scholar
  41. Husin, W. N. W. (2017). An introductory study on the Malay work ethics and business culture in Malaysia. Advanced Science Letters, 23(1), 585–588.Google Scholar
  42. Husin, W. N. W., Mazura, M. S., & Mujani, W. K. (2017). The internalization of Islamic work ethics in Malaysian Armed Forces organization. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 95, 189–191.Google Scholar
  43. Jaros, S. (2007). Meyer and Allen model of organization commitment: Measurement issues. The Icfai Journal of Organization Behaviour, 6(4), 7–25.Google Scholar
  44. Johnson, T. M., & Grim, B. J. (2013). Global religious populations 1910–2010. The world’s religions in figures: An introduction to international religious demography (pp. 9–78). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Jones, D. A. (2009). A novel approach to business ethics training: Improving moral reasoning in just a few weeks. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(2), 367–379.Google Scholar
  46. Kamal, H. (1985). Profesionalisme dan etika kerja Islam. Seminar Pengurusan Islam. Bangi: Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.Google Scholar
  47. Kamri, N. A. (2008). Pelaksanaan kod etika Islam di Institusi Pembangunan berteraskan Islam: Kajian kes di Lembaga Tabung Haji Malaysia (Doctoral dissertation). Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Malaya.Google Scholar
  48. Keesing, R. M. (1974). Theories of culture. Canberra: Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University.Google Scholar
  49. Kessler, E. H. (2013). Encyclopedia of management theory. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications: Pace University.Google Scholar
  50. Khan, K., Abbas, M., Gul, A., & Raja, U. (2013). Organizational justice and job outcomes: Moderating role of Islamic work ethic. Journal of Business Ethics, 126(2), 235–246.Google Scholar
  51. Khan, K., & Arshad, M. A. (2016). Impact of Islamic work ethics on employees’ behavior: Case of Kabul based organizations, Afghanistan. Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences, 9(2), 366–375.Google Scholar
  52. Kirkbesogl, E., & Sargu, A. S. (2016). Transformation of Islamic work ethic and social networks: The role of religious social embeddedness in organizational networks. Journal of Business Ethics, 139(2), 313–331.Google Scholar
  53. Kling, Z. (1993). Adat: Malay collective self-image. In 9th European Colloquium of Indonesian and Malay Studies. London: Hull.Google Scholar
  54. Kompanian, A. (2013). The relationship between Islamic work ethics, job related outcomes and conflict resolution styles in Iran, Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Iran: Eastern Mediterranean University.Google Scholar
  55. Lim K. H. (2003), Budi as the Malay mind: A philosophical study of Malay ways of reasoning and emotion in peribahasa. Doctoral dissertation. Jerman: University of Hamburg.Google Scholar
  56. Lòpez, C. C. (2001). The British presence in the Malay world: A meeting of civilizational traditions. Jurnal SARI, 19, 3–33.Google Scholar
  57. Mahani, S. (2008). Pelanggaran Tatasusila Agama dalam Kalangan Anggota Angkatan Tentera Malaysia (ATM). (Master’s thesis). Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Google Scholar
  58. Mahfoudh, A., Din, M. S. H., & Jusoh, M. S. (2016). The effect of Islamic work ethics (Akhlaq) to innovation capability. In S. Ab. Manan & F. Abd Rahman, & M. Sahri (Eds.), Contemporary issues and development in the global halal industry. Singapore: Springer.Google Scholar
  59. Manan, S. K., Kamaluddin, N., & Puteh, A. S. A. (2013). Islamic work ethics and organizational Commitment: Evidence from employee of Banking Institution in Malaysia. PERTANIKA, 21(4), 1471–1489.Google Scholar
  60. Mazli, A. M. (2004). Pentadbiran Organisasi Kor Agama Angkatan Tentera (KAGAT): Analisis Pencapaiannya Terhadap Pembangunan Akhlaq Tentera Malaysia. (Master’s thesis). Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Malaya.Google Scholar
  61. Mohamed, N., Karim, N. S. A., & Hussein, R. (2010). Linking Islamic work ethic to computer use ethics, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in Malaysia. Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, 5(1), 13–23.Google Scholar
  62. Mohammad, G., & Kamri, N. A. (2015). Keperibadian Islam dan profesionalisme dalam pekerjaan: Satu analisis teoritis. Jurnal Syariah, 23(2), 255–286.Google Scholar
  63. Muhammad, F., Chong, W. Y., & Omer, A. A. N. (2016). Organizational commitment: Does religiosity matter? Cogent Business and Management, 3(1239300), 1–10.Google Scholar
  64. Munawar, I. A., Yusof, M., O., & Jawiah, D. (2011). The development of human behaviour: Islamic approach. Jurnal Hadhari, 3(2), 103–116.Google Scholar
  65. Mustakim, M. N. M., Arni, B. S., Lukhman, T., & Husin, W. N. W. (2015). Kajian kes perlaksanaan etika kerja Islam (EKI) di Johor Corporation (JCorp): Tumpuan kepada perlaksanaan dan faedahnya. Jurnal Pengurusan, 45, 105–118.Google Scholar
  66. Mustakim, M. N. M., Arni, B. S., & Husin, W. N. W. (2014). Strategi dan faktor mempengaruhi perlaksanaan etika kerja Islam: Kajian kes di JCorp. Global Journal al-Thaqafah, 4(1), 97–111.Google Scholar
  67. Nik, M. A. R., Nordin, M., & Abdullah, S. (2004). The relationship between Islamic work ethics and organizational commitment: A case analysis. Malaysian Management. 41, 79.Google Scholar
  68. Norsaleha, M. S., Halim, T. A., & Salleh, A. (2013). Kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan instrumen penghayatan akidah. International Journal of Islamic Thought, 3, 71–80.Google Scholar
  69. Okpara, J. O. (2014). The effects of national culture on managers’ attitudes towards business ethics: Implication for organization change. Journal of Accounting and Organizational Change, 10(2), 174–189.Google Scholar
  70. Osibanjo, A. O., Akinbode, J. O., Falola, H. O., & Oludayo, A. O. (2015). Work ethics and employees’ job performance. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 12(1), 107–117.Google Scholar
  71. Othman, A. S., Rahman, N. K., Malek, Z., & Osman, A. R. (2004). Organizational commitment and work ethics: An empirical assessment in a Malaysian context.Google Scholar
  72. Ramalu, S. S., & Rashid, Z. M. (2017). Islamic work ethic, employee engagement and organizational citizenship behaviour: A study among civil servants in Malaysia. Journal of Global Business and Social Entrepreneurship, 1(2), 43–55.Google Scholar
  73. Ramayah, T., Yeap, J. A. L., & Ignatius, J. (2013). An empirical inquiry on knowledge sharing among academicians in higher learning institutions. Minerva: A review of science, learning and policy, 51(2), 131–154.Google Scholar
  74. Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Mastura, R. J. L., J., & Ramayah, T. (2016). Factors influencing residents’ perceptions toward tourism development: Differences across rural and urban world heritage sites. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6), 760–775.Google Scholar
  75. Razak, M. K. A. (2004). The Influence of Islam in the Military: Comparative Study of Malaysia, Indonesia and Pakistan (Master dissertation). Monterey: Naval Postgraduate School.Google Scholar
  76. Rice, G. (1999). Islamic ethics and the implications for business. Journal of Business Ethic, 18, 345–358.Google Scholar
  77. Ridzuan, A. A., Husin, W. N. W., & Mujani, W. K. (2017). Islamic work ethic elements and soldiers’ work performance. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 95, 226–228.Google Scholar
  78. Rizk, R. R. (2008). Back to basics: An Islamic perspective on business and work ethics. Social Responsibility Journal, 1(2), 246–254.Google Scholar
  79. Rokhman, W. (2010). The effect of Islamic work ethics on work outcomes. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 15(1), 21–27.Google Scholar
  80. Rusnah, M., Khairi, M. Y., & Azmi, M. I. (2008). Religiosity and perception on Islamic work ethics (IWE) among Muslim army in Malaysia. Proceedings of Applied International Business Conference. Kuala Lumpur (pp. 98–107).Google Scholar
  81. Russo, M. S. (2012). Ethics: What is right?. In M. S. Russo (Ed.), The problems of philosophy, New York: Sophia Omni.Google Scholar
  82. Saeed, M., Ahmed, Z. U., & Mukhtar, S. (2001). International marketing ethics from an Islamic perspective: A value-maximization approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 32, 127–142.Google Scholar
  83. Salahuddin, S. N., Baharuddin, S. S., Abdullah, M. S., & Osman, A. (2015). The effect of work ethics on organizational commitment. Procedia Economic and Finance, 35, 582–590.Google Scholar
  84. Sarwar, S., & Abugre, J. B. (2013). An assessment of Islamic work ethics on employees in organizations: Insights from the United Arab Emirates. Problem of Management in the 21st Century, 23, 60–72.Google Scholar
  85. Schwartz, S. H. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied psychology. An International Review, 48(l), 23–47.Google Scholar
  86. Schwartz, S. H. (2006). A theory of cultural value orientations: Explication and applications. Comparative Sociology, 5(2–3), 137–183.Google Scholar
  87. Selat, N. (2001). Adat Melayu: Kesinambungan dan perubahan. In Adat Melayu Serumpun. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Malaya.Google Scholar
  88. Syed, M. A., & Farid, A. S. (2008). Managerial leadership: An Islamic perspective. IIUC Studies, 4, 7–24.Google Scholar
  89. Uygur, S. (2009). The Islamic work ethics and the emergence of Turkish SME owner-managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 211–225.Google Scholar
  90. Uygur, S. (2009). The Islamic work ethic and the emergence of Turkish SME owner-managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(1), 211–225.Google Scholar
  91. Van Ness, R. K., Melinsky, K., Buff, C., & Seifert, C. F. (2010). Work Ethic: Do new employees mean new work values? Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 10–34.Google Scholar
  92. Vojko, P. (2013). The influence of employees’ ethical behavior on enterprises’ social responsibility. Systematic Practice and Action Research, 26, 497–511.Google Scholar
  93. Waples, E. P., Antes, A. L., Murphy, S. T., Connelly, S., & Mumford, M. D. (2009). A meta-analytic investigation of business ethics instruction. Journal of Business Ethics, 87(1), 133–151.Google Scholar
  94. Weiss, J. W. (2014). Business ethics: A stakeholder and issues management approach. California: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  95. Yaseen, S. G., Dajani, D., & Al-Taee, S. M. (2015). Islamic work ethics and organizational commitment: A Case of Jordanian Islamic Banks. In Handbook of Research on Islamic Business Ethics. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  96. Yousef, D. A. (2000). Organizational commitment as a mediator of the relationship between Islamic work ethic and attitudes toward organizational change. Human Relations, 53(4), 513–537.Google Scholar
  97. Yousef, D. A. (2001). Islamic work ethic: A moderator between organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a cross-cultural context. Personnel Review, 30(2), 152–169.Google Scholar
  98. Yunus, M. O., & Mazlan, M. (2012). Islamic work values and organizational commitment: A case study among employees in broadcasting industry. China-USA Business Review, 11(2), 161–172.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wan Norhasniah Wan Husin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nur Farahana Zul Kernain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Strategic Studies, Faculty of Defence Studies and ManagementNational Defence University of MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations