Prognostic and clinicopathological value of PD-L1 expression in primary breast cancer: a meta-analysis
To evaluate the association between PD-L1 expression (PD-L1+) and clinicopathological characteristics and effect on prognosis in primary breast cancer (PBC).
A systematic search of the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases was conducted in November 2018. Studies detecting PD-L1 using immunohistochemistry, and concerning its prognostic or clinicopathological significance in PBC were included. The HR with 95% CI for survival, and the events for clinicopathological features were pooled.
Forty-seven studies were included, with a total of 14,367 PBC patients. PD-L1+ tumor cells (TCs) were associated with ductal carcinomas, large tumor size, histological Grade 3 tumors, high Ki-67, ER and PR negative, and triple-negative breast cancer; and also, related to high tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PD-1 expression. PD-L1+ TCs were significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS, HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.21–1.70, P < 0.0001) and overall survival (OS, HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.14–2.20, P = 0.006). And the HRs of PD-L1+ TCs on DFS and OS were higher (1.48 and 1.70, respectively) and homogeneous when using whole tissue section, compared with tumor microarrays. However, PD-L1+ TILs related to better DFS (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.28–0.73, P = 0.001) and OS (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.27–0.63, P < 0.0001).
PD-L1 expression on TCs associates with high-risk clinicopathological parameters and poor prognosis in PBC patients, while PD-L1+ TILs may relate to a better survival. Comprehensive assessment of TCs and TILs is required when evaluating the clinical relevance of PD-L1 expression in future studies.
KeywordsPrimary breast cancer PD-L1 Immunohistochemistry Prognosis Meta-analysis
The authors are pleased to acknowledge the suggestions from Professor Xu Liang and Xiaoran Liu, which are crucial for manuscript revision.
There were no funding sources for this work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Not applicable (no informed consent required).
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