Advertisement

Treating HR+/HER2− breast cancer in premenopausal Asian women: Asian Breast Cancer Cooperative Group 2019 Consensus and position on ovarian suppression

  • Winnie Yeo
  • Takayuki Ueno
  • Ching-Hung Lin
  • Qiang Liu
  • Kyung-Hun Lee
  • Roland Leung
  • Yoichi Naito
  • Yeon Hee Park
  • Seock-Ah Im
  • Huiping Li
  • Yoon Sim Yap
  • Yen-Shen LuEmail author
  • The Asian Breast Cancer Cooperative Group
Review
  • 167 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Breast cancer in young Asian women has distinctive clinicopathological characteristics; hence, we question the universal generalizability of treatment recommendations based on data from predominantly non-Asian postmenopausal women.

Methods

The Asian Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (ABCCG) reviewed current ESO-ESMO and St. Gallen recommendations for treating hormone receptor positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HR+/HER2−) breast cancer in premenopausal women. Points disputed by ≥ 3/12 members were discussed, and statements on contentious issues formulated for anonymous voting; consensus required a ≥ 75% majority.

Results

The ABCCG contends that: (1) Trials in premenopausal women are not only necessary, but also worthwhile if performed separately from others that also enroll postmenopausal participants. (2) Not all premenopausal women with HR+ early breast cancer need adjuvant ovarian function suppression (OFS). (3) Certain clinical factors might influence decision-making about prescribing OFS. (4) For early HR+/HER2− breast cancer in premenopausal patients with OFS, tamoxifen is preferred for intermediate-risk cases; for high risk, near-consensus supported aromatase inhibitor, despite no clear overall survival benefit versus tamoxifen. (5) Oncotype DX Breast Recurrence Score® has different treatment implications in patients aged ≤ 50 versus > 50 years. (6) High-risk patients (if premenopausal after chemotherapy) should receive adjuvant chemotherapy and OFS plus aromatase inhibitor. (7) For patients with advanced disease receiving OFS on a backbone of tamoxifen, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists may be given 12-weekly. (8) For premenopausal women who decline OFS or oophorectomy, tamoxifen alone is still an option but is considered less effective; other monotherapies are also less effective than OFS plus such treatments.

Conclusion

Premenopausal Asian women with breast cancer have unique disease characteristics and may benefit from treatment that differs somewhat from international guidelines. Given the great diversity of patients and clinical settings worldwide, the ABCCG advocates evidence-based yet flexible and individualized use of all potential options to improve breast cancer outcomes.

Keywords

Asia Premenopausal breast cancer Treatment Ovarian suppression Combined endocrine therapy CDK4/6 inhibitor 

Abbreviations

ABCCG

Asian Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

ESO-ESMO

European School of Oncology and European Society for Medical Oncology

ABC 4

ESO-ESMO International Consensus Guidelines for Advanced Breast Cancer, fourth edition

HR+

Hormone receptor positive

HER2−

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative

OFS

Ovarian function suppression

OFA

Ovarian function ablation

GnRHa

Gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist

Notes

Acknowledgements

Novartis supported administrative organization of the ABCCG consensus survey and meeting, and third-party assistance with manuscript development. However, Novartis took no direct role in developing this Consensus Statement; the ABCCG members independently agreed each consensus point, wrote the manuscript, and decided to publish the final version. Dr. David Neil (PhD), of Full Universe Integrated Marketing, Taiwan, provided professional editorial and medical writing services, and his colleague Ms. Anabelle Huang assisted with manuscript preparation project management; these contributions were supported by funding from Novartis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have all participated as faculty members of Novartis Breast Cancer Advisory Boards, and received personal fees, reimbursement of travel expenses, and/or hospitality for their service in this capacity. However, the ABCCG is a professional association that was constituted and operates independently of Novartis and which sets its own research agenda. The article discusses specific Novartis products within the context of the current breast cancer therapeutic landscape, which the authors strove to review impartially. All views expressed are the authors’ own, and do not necessarily represent those of Novartis. The authors declare competing interests. WY reports consultancy/advisory roles and receipt of personal fees for Novartis, Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, Roche, and Amgen. TU reports receiving personal fees and non-financial support from Novartis KK, and personal fees from Chugai, Eisai, AstraZeneca KK, and Taiho. CHL reports a consultancy/advisory role for Novartis. QL reports a consultancy/advisory role and personal fees for Novartis, and receipt of personal fees from Pfizer, Roche, AstraZeneca, and Eisai. KHL reports consultancy/advisory roles with Novartis, AstraZeneca, Roche, Ono, Eisai, Bayer, and Samsung Bioepis. RL reports a consultancy/advisory role with Novartis. YN reports research funding and a consultancy/advisory role for Roche Diagnostics, and consultancy/advisory roles for Novartis, Pfizer, Taiho, Nippon Kayaku, Eli Lilly, AstraZeneca, Merck Serono, Bayer, Meiji Seika, Chugai, and Eisai. YHP reports research funding and consultancy/advisory roles for Novartis, Pfizer, Eisai, and research funds from AstraZeneca, and Roche. SAI reports research funding from AstraZeneca, research funds and a consultancy/advisory role for Pfizer, and consultancy/advisory roles with Novartis, Hanmi, Roche, Pfizer, Amgen, and Eisai. HL reports research funding and a consultancy/advisory role for Roche Diagnostics, and consultancy/advisory roles with Novartis, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, and AstraZeneca. YSY reports personal fees and a consultancy/advisory role for Novartis, receiving personal fees and non-financial support from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Lilly, and non-financial support from Eisai, and Roche. YSL reports receiving research funds and personal fees from Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and Merck Sharp & Dohme, and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim.

Ethical approval

This work did not entail studies of human participants by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10549_2019_5318_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (134 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 135 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Porter P (2008) “Westernizing” women’s risks? Breast cancer in lower-income countries. N Engl J Med 358:213–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shin HR, Joubert C, Boniol M, Hery C, Ahn SH, Won YJ, Nishino Y, Sobue T, Chen CJ, You SL, Mirasol-Lumague MR, Law SC, Mang O, Xiang YB, Chia KS, Rattanamongkolgul S, Chen JG, Curado MP, Autier P (2010) Recent trends and patterns in breast cancer incidence among Eastern and Southeastern Asian women. Cancer Causes Control 21:1777–1785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Youlden DR, Cramb SM, Yip CH, Baade PD (2014) Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in the Asia-Pacific region. Cancer Biol Med 11:101–115Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim Y, Yoo KY, Goodman MT (2015) Differences in incidence, mortality and survival of breast cancer by regions and countries in Asia and contributing factors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16:2857–2870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huang Z, Wen W, Zheng Y, Gao YT, Wu C, Bao P, Wang C, Gu K, Peng P, Gong Y, Zhang M, Xiang Y, Zhong W, Jin F, Xiang YB, Shu XO, Beeghly-Fadiel A (2016) Breast cancer incidence and mortality: trends over 40 years among women in Shanghai, China. Ann Oncol 27:1129–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheng Y, Yan Y, Gong J, Yang N, Nie S (2018) Trends in incidence and mortality of female breast cancer during transition in Central China. Cancer Manag Res 10:6247–6255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shen YC, Chang CJ, Hsu C, Cheng CC, Chiu CF, Cheng AL (2005) Significant difference in the trends of female breast cancer incidence between Taiwanese and Caucasian Americans: implications from age-period-cohort analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 14:1986–1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sung H, Rosenberg PS, Chen WQ, Hartman M, Lim WY, Chia KS, Mang OWK, Chiang CJ, Kang D, Ngan RK, Tse LA, Anderson WF, Yang XR (2015) Female breast cancer incidence among Asian and Western populations: more similar than expected. J Natl Cancer Inst 107:djv107.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djv107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Song QK, Li J, Huang R, Fan JH, Zheng RS, Zhang BN, Zhang B, Tang ZH, Xie XM, Yang HJ, He JJ, Li H, Li JY, Qiao YL, Chen WQ (2014) Age of diagnosis of breast cancer in China: almost 10 years earlier than in the United States and the European Union. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 15:10021–10025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin CH, Chuang PY, Chiang CJ, Lu YS, Cheng AL, Kuo WH, Huang CS, Lai MS, You SL, Tang CH (2014) Distinct clinicopathological features and prognosis of emerging young-female breast cancer in an East Asian country: a nationwide cacer registry-based study. Oncologist 19:583–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huang CS, Lin CH, Lu YS, Shen CY (2010) Unique features of breast cancer in Asian women–breast cancer in Taiwan as an example. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 118:300–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lin CH, Yap YS, Lee KH, Im SA, Naito Y, Yeo W, Ueno T, Kwong A, Li H, Huang SM, Leung R, Han W, Tan B, Hu FC, Huang CS, Cheng AL, Lu YS, The Asian Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (2019) Contrasting epidemiology and clinicopathology of female Breast Cancer in Asians versus the US Population. J Natl Cancer Inst.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz090 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin CH, Liau JY, Lu YS, Huang CS, Lee WC, Kuo KT, Shen YC, Kuo SH, Lan C, Liu JM, Kuo WH, Chang KJ, Cheng AL (2009) Molecular subtypes of breast cancer emerging in young women in Taiwan: evidence for more than just westernization as a reason for the disease in Asia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 18:1807–1814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kurebayashi J, Miyoshi Y, Ishikawa T, Saji S, Sugie T, Suzuki T, Takahashi S, Nozaki M, Yamashita H, Tokuda Y, Nakamura S (2015) Clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer and trends in the management of breast cancer patients in Japan: based on the Breast Cancer Registry of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society between 2004 and 2011. Breast Cancer 22:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lin CH, Chen YC, Chiang CJ, Lu YS, Kuo KT, Huang CS, Cheng WF, Lai MS, You SL, Cheng AL (2012) The emerging epidemic of estrogen-related cancers in young women in a developing Asian country. Int J Cancer 130:2629–2637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Azim HA Jr, Nguyen B, Brohée S, Zoppoli G, Sotiriou C (2015) Genomic aberrations in young and elderly breast cancer patients. BMC Med 13:266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yap YS, Singh AP, Lim JHC, Ahn JH, Jung KH, Kim J, Dent RA, Ng RCH, Kim SB, Chiang DY (2018) Elucidating therapeutic molecular targets in premenopausal Asian women with recurrent breast cancers. NPJ Breast Cancer 4:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kan Z, Ding Y, Kim J, Jung HH, Chung W, Lal S, Cho S, Fernandez-Banet J, Lee SK, Kim SW, Lee JE, Choi YL, Deng S, Kim JY, Ahn JS, Sha Y, Mu XJ, Nam JY, Im YH, Lee S, Park WY, Nam SJ, Park YH (2018) Multi-omics profiling of younger Asian breast cancers reveals distinctive molecular signatures. Nat Commun 9:1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Michaud LB, Jones KL, Buzdar AU (2001) Combination endocrine therapy in the management of breast cancer. Oncologist 6:538–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cortés J, Im SA, Holgado E, Perez-Garcia JM, Schmid P, Chavez-MacGregor M (2017) The next era of treatment for hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer: triplet combination-based endocrine therapies. Cancer Treat Rev 61:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Im SA, Sohn J, Tripathy D, Chow L, Lee KS, Jung KH, Babu G, Im YH, El Saghir N, Liu MC, Diaz-Padilla I, Alam J, Kong O, Miller M, Lu YS (2018) Ribociclib (RIB) + non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) + goserelin in premenopausal Asian women with hormone-receptor-positive (HR+), HER2-negative (HER2–) advanced breast cancer (ABC): results from the randomized phase III MONALEESA-7 study. Ann Oncol 29(Suppl 9):ix13–ix20.  https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdy428 Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Akaza H (2016) What is the Asian consensus statement on NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN-ACS)? Jpn J Clin Oncol 46:299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lertkhachonsuk AA, Yip CH, Khuhaprema T, Chen DS, Plummer M, Jee SH, Toi M, Wilailak S, Summit Asian Oncology (2013) (2103) Cancer prevention in Asia: resource-stratified guidelines from the Asian Oncology Summit 2013. Lancet Oncol 14:e497–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bardia A, Hurvitz S (2018) Targeted therapy for premenopausal women with HR+ , HER2- advanced breast cancer: focus on special considerations and latest advances. Clin Cancer Res 24:5206–5218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Costa RLB, Gradishar WJ (2017) Differences are important: breast cancer therapy in different ethnic groups. J Glob Oncol 3:281–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee KWC, Lord S, Finn RS, Lim E, Martin A, Loi S, Lynch J, Friedlander M, Lee CK (2019) The impact of ethnicity on efficacy and toxicity of cyclin D kinase 4/6 inhibitors in advanced breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 174:271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cardoso F, Senkus E, Costa A et al (2018) 4th ESO-ESMO International consensus guidelines for advanced Breast Cancer (ABC 4). Ann Oncol 29:1634–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Curigliano G, Burstein HJ, Winer EP, Gnant M, Dubsky P, Loibl S, Colleoni M, Regan MM, Piccart-Gebhart M, Senn HJ, Thürlimann B, St. Gallen International Expert Consensus on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2017 (2017) De-escalating and escalating treatments for early-stage breast cancer: the St. Gallen International Expert Consensus Conference on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2017. Ann Oncol 28:1700–1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Francis PA, Pagani O, Fleming GF, SOFT and TEXT Investigators and the International Breast Cancer Study Group et al (2018) Tailoring adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med 379:122–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Slamon DJ, Neven P, Chia S, Fasching PA, De Laurentiis M, Im SA, Petrakova K, Bianchi GV, Esteva FJ, Martín M, Nusch A, Sonke GS, De la Cruz-Merino L, Beck JT, Pivot X, Vidam G, Wang Y, Rodriguez Lorenc K, Miller M, Taran T, Jerusalem G (2018) Phase III randomized study of ribociclib and fulvestrant in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer: MONALEESA-3. J Clin Oncol 36:2465–2472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hortobagyi GN, Stemmer SM, Burris HA et al (2016) Ribociclib as first-line therapy for HR-positive, advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 375:1738–1748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tripathy D, Im SA, Colleoni M et al (2018) Ribociclib plus endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive, advanced breast cancer (MONALEESA-7): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 19:904–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Finn RS, Martin M, Rugo HS, Jones S, Im SA, Gelmon K, Harbeck N, Lipatov ON, Walshe JM, Moulder S, Gauthier E, Lu DR, Randolph S, Diéras V, Slamon DJ (2016) Palbociclib and letrozole in advanced Breast cancer. N Engl J Med 375:1925–1936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cristofanilli M, Turner NC, Bondarenko I, Ro J, Im SA, Masuda N, Colleoni M, DeMichele A, Loi S, Verma S, Iwata H, Harbeck N, Zhang K, Theall KP, Jiang Y, Bartlett CH, Koehler M, Slamon D (2016) Fulvestrant plus palbociclib versus fulvestrant plus placebo for treatment of hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer that progressed on previous endocrine therapy (PALOMA-3): final analysis of the multicentre, double-blind, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 17:425–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sledge GW Jr, Toi M, Neven P, Sohn J, Inoue K, Pivot X, Burdaeva O, Okera M, Masuda N, Kaufman PA, Koh H, Grischke EM, Frenzel M, Lin Y, Barriga S, Smith IC, Bourayou N, Llombart-Cussac A (2017) MONARCH 2: Abemaciclib in combination with fulvestrant in women with HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer who had progressed while receiving endocrine therapy. J Clin Oncol 35:2875–2884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Goetz MP, Toi M, Campone M, Sohn J, Paluch-Shimon S, Huober J, Park IH, Trédan O, Chen SC, Manso L, Freedman OC, Garnica Jaliffe G, Forrester T, Frenzel M, Barriga S, Smith IC, Bourayou N, Di Leo A (2017) MONARCH 3: Abemaciclib as initial therapy for advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 35:3638–3646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    André F, Ciruelos EM, Rubovszky G, Campone M, Loibl S, Rugo HS, Iwata H, Conte P, Mayer IA, Kaufman B, Yamashita T, Lu YS, Inoue K, Takahashi M, Pápai Z, Longin AS, Mills D, Wilke C, Hirawat S, Juric D (2018) Alpelisib (ALP) + fulvestrant (FUL) for advanced breast cancer (ABC): results of the phase III SOLAR-1 trial. Ann Oncol 29(Suppl 8):Abstract LBA3_PR.  https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdy424.010 Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Robson M, Im SA, Senkus E, Xu B, Domchek SM, Masuda N, Delaloge S, Li W, Tung N, Armstrong A, Wu W, Goessl C, Runswick S, Conte P (2017) Olaparib for metastatic breast cancer in patients with a germline BRCA mutation. N Engl J Med 377:523–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Litton JK, Rugo HS, Ettl J, Hurvitz SA, Gonçalves A, Lee KH, Fehrenbacher L, Yerushalmi R, Mina LA, Martin M, Roché H, Im YH, Quek RGW, Markova D, Tudor IC, Hannah AL, Eiermann W, Blum JL (2018) Talazoparib in patients with advanced breast cancer and a germline BRCA mutation. N Engl J Med 379:753–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Baselga J, Dent SF, Cortés J, Im YH, Diéras V, Harbeck N et al (2018) Phase III study of taselisib (GDC-0032) + fulvestrant (FULV) v FULV in patients (pts) with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, PIK3CA-mutant (MUT), locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC): primary analysis from SANDPIPER. J Clin Oncol 36(18_suppl):Abstract LBA1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    United States National Cancer Institute S, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. (www.seer.cancer.gov) SEER*Stat Database: Incidence –SEER 9 Regs Research Data, Nov 2015 Sub (1973-2013) < Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment > –Linked To County Attributes –Total U.S., 1969–2014 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2016, based on the November 2015 submission
  42. 42.
    Kaufmann M, Jonat W, Blamey R, Cuzick J, Namer M, Fogelman I, de Haes JC, Schumacher M, Sauerbrei W; Zoladex Early Breast Cancer Research Association (ZEBRA) Trialists’ Group (2003) Survival analyses from the ZEBRA study. goserelin (Zoladex) versus CMF in premenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 39:1711–1717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bedard PL, Di Leo A, Piccart-Gebhart MJ (2010) Taxanes: optimizing adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 7:22–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Baum M, Hackshaw A, Houghton J, Rutqvist, Fornander T, Nordenskjold B, Nicolucci A, Sainsbury R; ZIPP International Collaborators Group (2006) Adjuvant goserelin in pre-menopausal patients with early breast cancer: results from the ZIPP study. Eur J Cancer 42:895–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tevaarwerk AJ, Wang M, Zhao F, Fetting JH, Cella D, Wagner LI, Martino S, Ingle JN, Sparano JA, Solin LJ, Wood WC, Robert NJ (2014) Phase III comparison of tamoxifen versus tamoxifen plus ovarian function suppression in premenopausal women with node-negative, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (E-3193, INT-0142): a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 32:3948–3958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gnant M, Mlineritsch B, Stoeger H, Luschin-Ebengreuth G, Knauer M, Moik M, Jakesz R, Seifert M, Taucher S, Bjelic-Radisic V, Balic M, Eidtmann H, Eiermann W, Steger G, Kwasny W, Dubsky P, Selim U, Fitzal F, Hochreiner G, Wette V, Sevelda P, Ploner F, Bartsch R, Fesl C, Greil R, Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group, Vienna, Austria (2015) Zoledronic acid combined with adjuvant endocrine therapy of tamoxifen versus anastrozol plus ovarian function suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer: final analysis of the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group Trial 12. Ann Oncol 26:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Regan MM, Pagani O, Francis PA, Fleming GF, Walley BA, Kammler R, Dell’Orto P, Russo L, Szőke J, Doimi F, Villani L, Pizzolitto S, Öhlschlegel C, Sessa F, Peg Cámara V, Rodríguez Peralto JL, MacGrogan G, Colleoni M, Goldhirsch A, Price KN, Coates AS, Gelber RD, Viale G; SOFT and TEXT Investigators and International Breast Cancer Study Group (2015) Predictive value and clinical utility of centrally assessed ER, PgR, and Ki-67 to select adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer: TEXT and SOFT trials. Breast Cancer Res Treat 154:275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Saha P, Regan MM, Pagani O, Francis PA, Walley BA, Ribi K, Bernhard J, Luo W, Gómez HL, Burstein HJ, Parmar V, Torres R, Stewart J, Bellet M, Perelló A, Dane F, Moreira A, Vorobiof D, Nottage M, Price KN, Coates AS, Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD, Colleoni M, Fleming GF; SOFT; TEXT Investigators; International Breast Cancer Study Group (2017) Treatment efficacy, adherence, and quality of Life among women younger than 35 years in the International Breast Cancer Study Group TEXT and SOFT adjuvant endocrine therapy trials. J Clin Oncol 35:3113–3122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sparano JA, Gray RJ, Makower DF, Pritchard KI, Albain KS, Hayes DF, Geyer CE Jr, Dees EC, Goetz MP, Olson JA Jr, Lively T, Badve SS, Saphner TJ, Wagner LI, Whelan TJ, Ellis MJ, Paik S, Wood WC, Ravdin PM, Keane MM, Gomez Moreno HL, Reddy PS, Goggins TF, Mayer IA, Brufsky AM, Toppmeyer DL, Kaklamani VG, Berenberg JL, Abrams J, Sledge GW Jr (2018) Adjuvant chemotherapy guided by a 21-gene expression assay in Breast cancer. N Engl J Med 379:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liem GS, Mo FK, Pang E, Suen JJ, Tang NL, Lee KM, Yip CH, Tam WH, Ng R, Koh J, Yip CC, Kong GW, Yeo W (2015) Chemotherapy-related amenorrhea and menopause in young Chinese Breast cancer patients: analysis on incidence, risk factors and serum hormone profiles. PLoS ONE 10:e0140842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Referenced with permission from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for Breast Cancer V.1.2019. © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2019. All rights reserved. Accessed 16 April 2019. To view the most recent and complete version of the guideline, go online to NCCN.org. NCCN makes no warranties of any kind whatsoever regarding their content, use or application and disclaims any responsibility for their application or use in any wayGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rossi E, Morabito A, Rella De, Esposito G, Gravina A, Labonia V, Landi G, Nuzzo F, Pacilio C, De Maio E, Di Maio M, Piccirillo MC, De Feo G, D’Aiuto G, Botti G, Chiodini P, Gallo C, Perrone F, de Matteis A (2009) Endocrine effects of adjuvant letrozole compared with tamoxifen in hormone-responsive postmenopausal patients with early breast cancer: the HOBOE trial. J Clin Oncol 27:3192–3197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lutchman SK, Davies M, Chatterjee R (2005) Fertility in female cancer survivors: pathophysiology, preservation and the role of ovarian reserve testing. Hum Reprod Update 11:69–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Noguchi S, Kim HJ, Jesena A, Parmar V, Sato N, Wang HC, Lokejaroenlarb S, Isidro J, Kim KS, Itoh Y, Shin E (2016) Phase 3, open-label, randomized study comparing 3-monthly with monthly goserelin in pre-menopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. Breast Cancer 23:771–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Masuda N, Iwata H, Rai Y, Anan K, Takeuchi T, Kohno N, Takei H, Yanagita Y, Noguchi S (2011) Monthly versus 3-monthly goserelin acetate treatment in pre-menopausal patients with estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 126:443–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Young OE, Renshaw L, Macaskill EJ, White S, Faratian D, Thomas JS, Dixon JM (2008) Effects of fulvestrant 750 mg in premenopausal women with oestrogen-receptor-positive primary breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 44:391–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mori R, Nagao Y (2014) High-dose toremifene for fulvestrant-resistant metastatic breast cancer: a report of two cases. Case Rep Oncol 7:383–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ambros T, Zeichner SB, Zaravinos J, Montero AJ, Ahn E, Aruna M, Kronish L, Mahtani RL, Vogel CL (2014) A retrospective study evaluating a fixed low dose capecitabine monotherapy in women with HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 146:7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Martín M, Kahan Z, Carrasco E, Bartlett CH, Casas M, Gig-Gil M, Muñoz M, Ciruelos EM, Ruiz-Borrego M, Margelí M, Antón A, Bermejo B, Morales S, Gal-Yam E, Koehler M, García-Sáenz JA, de la Haba J, Chacón I, Zielinski C (2017) Abstract OT2-01-06: phase III study of palbociclib (PD-0332991) in combination with endocrine therapy (exemestane or fulvestrant) versus chemotherapy (capecitabine) in hormonal receptor (HR) positive/HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients with resistance to aromatase inhibitors. “The PEARL study” (GEICAM/2013-02). Cancer Res 77(4 suppl):Abstract OT2-01-06.  https://doi.org/10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS16-OT2-01-06 Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Piccart M, Hortobagyi GN, Campone M, Pritchard KI, Lebrun F, Ito Y, Noguchi S, Perez A, Rugo HS, Deleu I, Burris HA 3rd, Provencher L, Neven P, Gnant M, Shtivelband M, Wu C, Fan J, Feng W, Taran T, Baselga J (2014) Everolimus plus exemestane for hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative advanced breast cancer: overall survival results from BOLERO-2. Ann Oncol 25:2357–2362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Royce M, Bachelot T, Villanueva C, Özgüroglu M, Azevedo SJ, Cruz FM, Debled M, Hegg R, Toyama T, Falkson C, Jeong J, Srimuninnimit V, Gradishar WJ, Arce C, Ridolfi A, Lin C, Cardoso F (2018) Everolimus plus endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced Breast cancer: a clinical trial. JAMA Oncol 4:977–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Robson ME, Tung N, Conte P, Im SA, Senkus E, Xu B, Masuda N, Delaloge S, Li W, Armstrong A, Wu W, Goessl C, Runswick S, Domchek SM (2019) OlympiAD final overall survival and tolerability results: olaparib versus chemotherapy treatment of physician’s choice in patients with a germline BRCA mutation and HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol.  https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdz012 Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Campone M, Im SA, Iwata H, Clemons M, Ito Y, Awada A, Chia S, Jagiełło-Gruszfeld A, Pistilli B, Tseng LM, Hurvitz S, Masuda N, Cortés J, De Laurentiis M, Arteaga CL, Jiang Z, Jonat W, Le Mouhaër S, Sankaran B, Bourdeau L, El-Hashimy M, Sellami D, Baselga J (2018) Buparlisib plus fulvestrant versus placebo plus fulvestrant for postmenopausal, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, advanced breast cancer: overall survival results from BELLE-2. Eur J Cancer 103:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rinnerthaler G, Gampenrieder SP, Greil R (2018) ASCO 2018 highlights: metastatic breast cancer. Memo 11:276–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Translational Oncology, Department of Clinical Oncology, Faculty of MedicinePrince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong Cancer Institute, Chinese University of Hong KongShatinChina
  2. 2.Breast Surgical OncologyCancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer ResearchTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of OncologyNational Taiwan University HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Breast Tumor Center, Sun-Yat Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun-Yat Sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  5. 5.Department of Internal MedicineCancer Research Institute, Seoul National University HospitalSeoulRepublic of Korea
  6. 6.Division of Haematology, Medical Oncology and BMT, Department of MedicineQueen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong KongHong Kong SARChina
  7. 7.Department of Breast and Medical OncologyNational Cancer Center Hospital EastKashiwaJapan
  8. 8.Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of MedicineSamsung Medical CenterSeoulRepublic of Korea
  9. 9.Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Breast OncologyPeking University Cancer Hospital & InstituteBeijingChina
  10. 10.Division of Medical OncologyNational Cancer Centre SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations