Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 169, Issue 3, pp 413–428 | Cite as

Partitioning Eddy-Covariance Methane Fluxes from a Shallow Lake into Diffusive and Ebullitive Fluxes

  • Hiroki IwataEmail author
  • Ryuichi Hirata
  • Yoshiyuki Takahashi
  • Yuichi Miyabara
  • Masayuki Itoh
  • Kotaro Iizuka
Research Article


Methane (\(\mathrm {CH}_{4}\)) is known to be emitted from lakes to the atmosphere via processes such as diffusion and ebullition (i.e., bubble emission). We developed a practical method for partitioning eddy-covariance \(\mathrm {CH}_{4}\) fluxes from a shallow lake into diffusive and ebullitive fluxes using a wavelet analysis based on local scalar similarity between the \(\mathrm {CH}_{4}\) concentration and other reference scalars, such as the air temperature or water vapour concentration, in the wavelet time-scale domain, with the hypothesis that similar and dissimilar fluctuation components are related to diffusive and ebullitive \(\mathrm {CH}_{4}\) fluxes, respectively. Our method is applied to approximately two weeks of data obtained at a shallow mid-latitude lake. The partitioned diffusive flux has a physically sound relationship with wind speed, supporting the validity of the method. The ratio of the diffusive flux to the total flux is typically 0.11 with flow from an area of steady bubble emission, but otherwise 0.36. Further validation is required using a larger dataset and data from other lakes. The proposed method can be easily applied to historical data because it requires only 10-Hz data of \(\mathrm {CH}_{4}\) concentration and other reference scalars, along with an empirical parameter.


\(\mathrm {CH}_{4}\) flux Ebullition Gas exchange Scalar similarity Wavelet analysis 



We thank Mr. Hiroshi Moriyama for allowing us to use the pier for observations. Constructive comments from Prof. T. Foken and two anonymous reviewers helped to improve this manuscript. Dr. C. Schaller kindly provided his program code to calculate the short-term fluxes. This study was funded by a grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI (no. 17H05039). The program code to perform the flux partitioning developed here is available from the author upon request (Hiroki Iwata,

Supplementary material

10546_2018_383_MOESM1_ESM.docx (226 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (docx 226 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesShinshu UniversityMatsumotoJapan
  2. 2.Center for Global Environmental ResearchNational Institute for Environmental StudiesTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Institute of Mountain ScienceShinshu UniversitySuwaJapan
  4. 4.Center for Southeast Asian StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  5. 5.Center for Spatial Information ScienceUniversity of TokyoKashiwaJapan

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