Quality control of commercial bovine lactoferrin
Herein we review commercial bovine lactoferrin quality issues by describing an example of industrial production, the current status of global quality standardization, and quality-activity concerns for further discussion. Morinaga Milk Industry has been industrially producing bovine lactoferrin in Milei GmbH, Germany, since 1989. We delineate its production and quality as an example of safe and high-quality manufacturing. Currently, global standardization in the quality of bovine lactoferrin is progressing through Novel Food and GRAS in the EU and USA, respectively. Novel Food was applied or notified to seven lactoferrin manufacturers and GRAS was notified to three manufacturers, two of which are for infant use and one is for adult use, by the end of 2017. The specifications of these regulations are relatively high, including more than 95% lactoferrin purity in protein, which means that such companies can supply relatively high-grade lactoferrin. There appear to be several concerns regarding lactoferrin quality affecting activities, including contamination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and angiogenin, purity, and degradation of lactoferrin sample. Although LPS is immunologically toxic when invading the body, it is distributed normally in foods and the gut. However, an industrial lactoferrin sample may contain LPS at a maximum LPS/lactoferrin molecule ratio = 1/1724, which means 99.9% of the lactoferrin molecule is LPS-free. It is difficult to speculate that LPS contained in a lactoferrin sample affects its activities. Finally in order to achieve good and reproducible results, we make proposals to researchers a use of high-grade lactoferrin, careful storage, and indication the manufacturers’ names and specifications in the paper.
KeywordsLactoferrin Quality Specification Novel Food GRAS LPS
Funding was provided by Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd.
- Abreu MT, Vora P, Faure E, Thomas LS, Arnold ET, Arditi M (2001) Decreased expression of Toll-like receptor-4 and MD-2 correlates with intestinal epithelial cell protection against dysregulated proinflammatory gene expression in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 167:1609–1616CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- European Commission (2018) Novel Food. What is Novel Food? https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food_en. Accessed 24 Jan 2018
- Iigo M, Shimamura M, Matsuda E, Fujita K, Nomoto H, Satoh J, Kojima S, Alexander DB, Moore MA, Tsuda H (2004) Orally administered bovine lactoferrin induces caspase-1 and interleukin-18 in the mouse intestinal mucosa: a possible explanation for inhibition of carcinogenesis and metastasis. Cytokine 25:36–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lonnerdal B (2011) Biological effects of novel bovine milk fractions. In: Clemens RA, Hernell O, Michaelsen KF (ed) Milk and milk products in human nutrition, vol 67. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme. S. Karger, Basel, pp 41–54Google Scholar
- Murata M, Wakabayashi H, Yamauchi K, Toida T, Iwatsuki K (2009) Influence of lipopolysaccharides on the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin against Escherichia coli. In: IX international conference on lactoferrin, structure, function & applications, program & abstracts, p 43Google Scholar
- Perraudin J-P (2017) Industrial purification of lactoferrin: characterization and quality control. In: XIII international conference on lactoferrin, structure, function & applications, abstract book, p 17Google Scholar
- Rosa L, Cutone A, Lepanto MS, Scotti M, Berlutti F, Paesano R, Valenti P (2017) Physico-chemical properties influence the functions and efficacy of commercial bovine lactoferrins. In: XIII international conference on lactoferrin, structure, function & applications, abstract book, p 19Google Scholar
- U.S. Food & Drug Administration (2018) Generally recognized as safe (GRAS). https://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm. Accessed 24 Jan 2018