Advertisement

Biogeochemistry

, Volume 146, Issue 2, pp 191–207 | Cite as

Dissolved black carbon in throughfall and stemflow in a fire-managed longleaf pine woodland

  • Sasha WagnerEmail author
  • Steven Brantley
  • Stribling Stuber
  • John Van Stan
  • Ansley Whitetree
  • Aron Stubbins
Article

Abstract

The interception of rainfall by trees enriches rainwater with tree-derived dissolved organic matter (tree-DOM), which represents the first terrigenous source of DOM during storm events. The tree-DOM is then exported from the canopy via rainfall that drips from leaves and branches (throughfall) or is funneled down the tree trunk (stemflow) to the forest floor. Here, we evaluate contributions of dissolved black carbon (DBC) to tree-DOM in fire-managed longleaf pine woodlands (Pinus palustris). These are the first quantitative measurements of throughfall and stemflow DBC for any type of forest or tree species. The inter-storm variability of tree-DOM concentrations, composition, and optical properties in throughfall and stemflow were also examined. Tree-DOM was enriched in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and DBC compared to rainfall, and concentrations did not vary with storm size. Therefore, longleaf and slash pines contain a large repository of leachable organic matter that was not significantly diminished, even during large storm events. The aromaticity of stemflow DOM increased with amount of rainfall, suggesting bark may need to undergo a certain degree of saturation for the solubilization of DBC and other aromatic components. In tree-DOM, DBC comprised ~ 2% of DOC. A simple mass balance suggested annual yields of DBC in throughfall and stemflow (50–350 kg-DBC and 19 kg-DBC km−2 year−1, respectively). Therefore, atmospheric deposition would be enough to sustain a continual source of tree-derived DBC in longleaf pine ecosystems regularly maintained by fire.

Keywords

Dissolved black carbon Throughfall Stemflow Longleaf pine Tree-DOM Prescribed fire 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by National Science Foundation Grants DEB #1824613 and EAR #1518726 and the Jones Center at Ichauway. M. Belovitch, D. Cross, M. Hederman, and R. Ritger are thanked for their hard work on sample prep, collection, and processing, and we especially appreciate E. Rea’s efforts on coordinating all of the above and ensuring prompt deliveries of samples. We thank J. Brandes at the University of Georgia, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography for the use of his HPLC instrument for analyses.

Supplementary material

10533_2019_620_MOESM1_ESM.docx (371 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 370 kb)
10533_2019_620_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (52 kb)
Supplementary file2 (XLSX 52 kb)

References

  1. Abiven S, Hengartner P, Schneider MPW, Singh N, Schmidt MWI (2011) Pyrogenic carbon soluble fraction is larger and more aromatic in aged charcoal than in fresh charcoal. Soil Biol Biochem 43:1615–1617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexis MA, Rasse DP, Rumpel C, Bardoux G, Pechot N, Schmalzer P, Drake B, Mariotti A (2007) Fire impact on C and N losses and charcoal production in a scrub oak ecosystem. Biogeochem 82:201–216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-006-9063-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhat S, Jacobs JM, Bryant ML (2011) The chemical composition of rainfall and throughfall in five forest communities: a case study in Fort Benning, Georgia. Water Air Soil Pollut 218:323–332.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-010-0644-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bond TC, Streets DG, Yarber KF, Nelson SM, Woo JH, Klimont Z (2004) A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003697 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyer WD (1972) Air temperature, heat sums, and pollen shedding phenology of longleaf pine. Ecology 54:420–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bryant ML, Bhat S, Jacobs JM (2005) Measurements and modeling of throughfall variability for five forest communities in the southeastern US. J Hydrol 312:95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Butnor JR, Samuelson LJ, Johnsen KH, Anderson PH, Benecke CAG, Boot CM, Cotrufo MF, Heckman KA, Jackson JA, Stokes TA, Zarnoch SJ (2017) Vertical distribution and persistence of soil organic carbon in fire-adapted longleaf pine forests. Forest Ecol Manag 390:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Certini G (2005) Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia 143:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coppola AI, Druffel ERM (2016) Cycling of black carbon in the ocean. Geophys Res Lett 43:4477–4482.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068574 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crockford RH, Richardson DP (2000) Partitioning of rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and interception: effect of forest type, ground cover and climate. Hydrol Process 14:2903–2920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Decesari S, Facchini MC, Matta E, Mircea M, Fuzzi S, Chughtai AR, Smith DM (2002) Water soluble organic compounds formed by oxidation of soot. Atmos Environ 36:1827–1832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ding Y, Yamashita Y, Jones J, Jaffé R (2015) Dissolved black carbon in boreal forest and glacial rivers of central Alaska: assessment of biomass burning versus anthropogenic sources. Biogeochem 123:15–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-014-0050-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dittmar T (2008) The molecular level determination of black carbon in marine dissolved organic matter. Org Geochem 39:396–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dittmar T, Koch B, Hertkorn N, Kattner G (2008) A simple and efficient method for the solid-phase extraction of dissolved organic matter (SPE-DOM) from seawater. Limnol Oceanogr- Methods 6:230–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dittmar T, de Rezende CE, Manecki M, Niggemann J, Ovalle ARC, Stubbins A, Bernardes MC (2012) Continuous flux of dissolved organic carbon from a vanished tropical forest biome. Nat Geosci 5:618–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Friesen J, Lundquist J, Van Stan JT (2015) Evolution of forest precipitation water storage measurement methods. Hydrol Process 29:2504–2520.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guggenberger G, Zech W (1994) Composition and dynamics of dissolved carbohydrates and lignin-degradation products in two coniferous forests, N.E. Bavaria, Germany. Soil Biol Biochem 26:19–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(94)90191-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guggenberger G, Zech W, Schulten HR (1994) Formation and mobilization pathways of dissolved organic matter: Evidence from chemical structural studies of organic matter fractions in acid forest floor solutions. Org Geochem 21:51–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(94)90087-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hammes K et al (2007) Comparison of quantification methods to measure fire-derived (black/elemental) carbon in soils and sediments using reference materials from soil, water, sediment and the atmosphere. Global Biogeochem Cy.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GB002914 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hernes PJ, Spencer RGM, Dyda RY, O’Geen AT, Dahlgren RA (2017) The genesis and exodus of vascular plant DOM from an oak woodland landscape. Front Earth Sci.  https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2017.00009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Howard DH, Van Stan JT, Whitetree A, Zhu L, Stubbins A (2018) Interstorm variability in the biolability of tree-derived dissolved organic matter (tree-DOM) in throughfall and stemflow. Forests 9:236.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f9050236 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hsueh YH, Allen ST, Keim RF (2016) Fine-scale spatial variability of throughfall amount and isotopic composition under a hardwood forest canopy. Hydrol Process 30:1796–1803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hu C, Muller-Karger FE, Zepp RG (2002) Absorbance, absorption coefficient, and apparent quantum yield: a comment on common ambiguity in the use of these optical concepts. Limnol Oceanogr 47:1261–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Inamdar S, Finger N, Singh S, Mitchell M, Levia D, Bais H, Scott D, McHale P (2012) Dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration and quality in a forested mid-Atlantic watershed, USA. Biogeochem 108:55–76.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-011-9572-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Inamdar S, Dhillon G, Singh S, Dutta S, Levia DF, Mitchell MJ, Van Stan J, McHale P (2013) Temporal variation in end-member chemistry and its influence on runoff mixing patterns in a forested, Piedmont catchment. Water Resour Res 49:1828–1844.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wrcr.20158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jaffé R, Ding Y, Niggeman J, Vähätalo AV, Stubbins A, Spencer RGM, Campbell J, Dittmar T (2013) Global charcoal mobilization via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans. Science 340:345–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson MS, Lehmann J (2006) Double-funneling of trees: stemflow and root-induced preferential flow. Ecoscience 13:324–333.  https://doi.org/10.2980/i1195-6860-13-3-324.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jurado E, Dachs J, Duarte CM, Simo R (2008) Atmospheric deposition of organic and black carbon in the global oceans. Atmos Environ 42:7931–7939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Khan AL, Wagner S, Jaffé R, Xian P, Williams M, Armstrong R, McKnight D (2017) Dissolved black carbon in the global cryosphere: concentrations and chemical signatures. Geophys Res Lett 44:6226–6234.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kirkman LK, Jack SB (2017) Ecological restoration and management of longleaf pine forests, 1st edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kuhlbusch TA, Crutzen PJ (1995) Toward a global estimate of black carbon in residues of vegetation fires representing a sink of atmospheric CO2 and a source of O2. Global Biogeochem Cy 9:491–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kuzyakov Y, Bogomolova I, Glaser B (2014) Biochar stability in soil: decomposition during eight years and transformation as assessed by compound-specific 14C analysis. Soil Biol Biochem 70:229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Levia DF, Keim RF, Carlyle-Moses DE, Frost EE (2011) Throughfall and stemflow in wooded ecosystems. In: Levia DF, Carlyle-Moses DE, Tanaka T (eds) Forest hydrology and biogeochemistry: synthesis of past research and future directions. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 425–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Levia DF, Van Stan JT, Inamdar SP, Jarvis MT, Mitchell MJ, Mage SM, Scheik CE, McHale PJ (2012) Stemflow and dissolved organic carbon cycling: temporal variability in concentration, flux, and UV-Vis spectral metrics in a temperate broadleaved deciduous forest in the eastern United States. Can J Forest Res 42:207–216.  https://doi.org/10.1139/x11-173 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Masiello CA (2004) New directions in black carbon organic geochemistry. Mar Chem 92:201–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McIntyre RK, Guldin JM, Ettel T, Ware C, Jones K (2018) Restoration of longleaf pine in the southern United States: a status report. In: Kirschman JE (comp) Proceedings of the 19th Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference, General Technical Report SRS-234, USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, North Carolina, pp 297–302Google Scholar
  37. Mitchell RJ, Kirkman LK, Pecot SD, Wilson CA, Palik BJ, Boring LR (1999) Patterns and controls of ecosystem function in longleaf pine-wiregrass savannas. I. Aboveground net primary productivity. Can J For Res 29:743–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mitchell RJ, Liu Y, O’Brien JJ, Elliott KJ, Starr G, Miniat CF, Hiers JK (2014) Future climate and fire interactions in the southeastern region of the United States. Forest Ecol Manag 327:316–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oris F, Ali AA, Asselin H, Paradis L, Bergeron Y, Finsinger W (2014) Charcoal dispersion and deposition in boreal lakes from 3 years of monitoring: differences between local and regional fires. Geophys Res Lett 41:6743–6752.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL060984 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Peel MC, Finlayson BL, McMahon TA (2007) Updated world map of the Koppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol Earth Syst Sc 11:1633–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Randerson JT, Chen Y, van der Werf GR, Rogers BM, Morton DC (2012) Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires. J Geophyis Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JG002128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Raymond PA, Saiers JE (2010) Event controlled DOC export from forested watersheds. Biogeochem 100:197–209.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-010-9416-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Raymond PA, Spencer RGM (2015) Riverine DOM. In: Hansell DA, Carlson CA (eds) Biogeochemistry of marine dissolved organic matter, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 509–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Reisser M, Purves RS, Schmidt MWI, Abiven S (2016) Pyrogenic carbon in soils: a literature-based inventory and a global estimation of its content in soil organic carbon and stocks. Front Earth Sci 4:80.  https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2016.00080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rindy JE, Ponette-Gonzalez AG, Barrett TE, Sheesley RJ, Weathers KC (2019) Urban trees are sinks for soot: elemental carbon accumulation by two widespread oak species. Environ Sci Technol 53:10092–10101.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b02844 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Roebuck JA, Podgorski DC, Wagner S, Jaffé R (2017) Photodissolution of charcoal and fire-impacted soil as a potential source of dissolved black carbon in aquatic environments. Org Geochem 112:16–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2017.06.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Roth PJ, Lehndorff E, Brodowski S, Bornemann L, Sánchez-García L, Gustafsson O, Amelung W (2012) Differentiation of charcoal, soot and diagenetic carbon in soil: method comparison and perspectives. Org Geochem 46:66–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sanderman J, Lohse KA, Baldock JA, Amundson R (2009) Linking soils and streams: sources and chemistry of dissolved organic matter in a small coastal watershed. Water Resour Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008WR006977 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Santín C, Doerr SH, Kane ES, Masiello CA, Ohlson M, De La Rosa JM, Preston CM, Dittmar T (2016) Towards a global assessment of pyrogenic carbon from vegetation fires. Glob Change Biol 22:67–91.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12985 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schmidt MWI, Noack AG (2000) Black carbon in soils and sediments: analysis, distribution, implications, and current challenges. Global Biogeochem Cy 14:777–793.  https://doi.org/10.1029/1999GB001208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schneider MPW, Hilf M, Vogt UF, Schmidt MWI (2010) The benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) pattern of wood pyrolyzed between 200°C and 1000°C. Org Geochem 41:1082–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schuster PF, Shanley JB, Marvin-Dipasquale M, Reddy MM, Aiken GR, Roth DA, Taylor HE, Krabbenhoft DP, DeWild JF (2008) Mercury and organic carbon dynamics during runoff episodes from a northeastern USA watershed. Water Air Soil Pollut 187:89–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sheffield MCP, Gagnon JL, Jack SB, McConville DJ (2003) Phenological patterns of mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Miller) under two different soil moisture regimes. Forest Ecol Manag 179:157–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Spencer RGM, Butler KD, Aiken GR (2012) Dissolved organic carbon and chromophoric dissolved organic matter properties of rivers in the USA. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JG001928 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Starr G, Staudhammer CL, Loescher HW, Mitchell R, Whelan A, Hiers JK, O’Brien JJ (2015) Time series analysis of forest carbon dynamics: recovery of Pinus palustris physiology following a prescribed fire. New Forest 46:63–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stubbins A, Dittmar T (2012) Low volume quantification of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved nitrogen. Limnol Oceanogr-Meth 10:347–352.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2012.10.347 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stubbins A, Spencer RGM, Mann PJ, Holmes RM, McClelland JW, Niggemann J, Dittmar T (2015) Utilizing colored dissolved organic matter to derive dissolved black carbon export by arctic rivers. Front Earth Sci 3:63.  https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2015.00063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stubbins A, Silva LM, Dittmar T, Van Stan JT (2017) Molecular and optical properties of tree-derived dissolved organic matter in throughfall and stemflow from live oak and eastern red cedar. Front Earth Sci.  https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2017.00022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. van der Werf GR, Randerson JT, Giglio L, Collatz GJ, Mu M, Kasibhatla PS, Morton DC, DeFries RS, Jin Y, van Leeuwen TT (2010) Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009). Atmos Chem Phys 10:11707–11735.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-11707-2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Van Wagner CE (1977) Conditions for the start and spread of crown fire. Can J For Res 7:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Van Stan JT, Stubbins A (2018) Tree-DOM: Dissolved organic matter in throughfall and stemflow. Limnol Oceanogr-Lett 3:199–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Van Stan JT, Levia DF, Inamdar SP, Lepori-Bui M, Mitchell MJ (2012) The effects of phenoseason and storm characteristics on throughfall solute washoff and leaching dynamics from a temperate deciduous forest canopy. Sci Total Environ 430:48–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Van Stan JT, Stubbins A, Bittar T, Reichard JS, Wright KA, Jenkins RB (2015) Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. (Spanish moss) water storage and leachate characteristics from two maritime oak forest settings. Ecohydrology 8:988–1004.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1549 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Van Stan JT, Lewis ES, Hildebrandt A, Rebmann C, Friesen J (2016) Impact of interacting bark and rainfall conditions on stemflow variability in a temperate beech-oak forest, Central Germany. Hydrolog Sci J 61:2071–2083.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2015.1083104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Van Stan JT, Wagner S, Guillemette F, Whitetree A, Lewis J, Silva L, Stubbins A (2017) Temporal dynamics in the concentration, flux, and optical properties of tree-derived dissolved organic matter (tree-DOM) in an epiphyte-laden oak-cedar forest. J Geophys Res Biogeosci.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JG004111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Vorholt JA (2012) Microbial life in the phyllosphere. Nat Rev Microbiol 10:828–840.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2910 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wagner S, Cawley KM, Rosario-Ortiz F, Jaffé R (2015) In-stream sources and links between particulate and dissolved black carbon following a wildfire. Biogeochem 124:145–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wagner S, Brandes J, Goranov AI, Drake TW, Spencer RGM, Stubbins A (2017) Online quantification and compound-specific stable isotopic analysis of black carbon in environmental matrices via liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Limnol Oceanogr-Meth 15:995–1006.  https://doi.org/10.1002/lom3.10219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wagner S, Jaffé R, Stubbins A (2018) Dissolved black carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Limnol Oceanogr Lett 3:168–185.  https://doi.org/10.1002/lol2.10076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Weishaar JL, Aiken GR, Bergamaschi BA, Fram MS, Fugii R, Mopper K (2003) Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon. Environ Sci Technol 37:4702–4708.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es030360x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wickland KP, Neff JC, Aiken GR (2007) Dissolved organic carbon in Alaskan boreal forests: Sources, chemical characteristics, and biodegradability. Ecosystems 10:1323–1340.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-007-9101-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wozniak AS, Bauer JE, Dickhut RM (2011) Fossil and contemporary aerosol particulate organic carbon in the eastern United States: Implications for deposition and inputs to watersheds. Global Biogeochem Cy.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GB003855 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Yamane K, Nakaba S, Yamaguchi M, Kuroda K, Sano Y, Lenggoro IW, Izuta T, Funada R (2012) Visualization of artificially deposited submicron-sized aerosol particles on the surfaces of leaves and needles. Asian J Atmos Environ 6–4:275–280.  https://doi.org/10.5572/ajae.2012.6.4.275 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yang J, Chang Y, Yan P (2015) Ranking the suitability of common urban tree species for controlling PM2.5 pollution. Atmos Pollut Res 6:267–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yoon B, Raymond PA (2012) Dissolved organic matter export from a forested watershed during Hurricane Irene. Geophys Res Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052785 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA
  2. 2.Jones Center at IchauwayNewtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Geology and GeographyGeorgia Southern UniversityStatesboroUSA
  4. 4.Applied Coastal Research LaboratoryGeorgia Southern UniversitySavannahUSA
  5. 5.Departments of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Chemistry and Chemical BiologyNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations