Carbon sources that enable enrichment of 1,4-dioxane-degrading bacteria in landfill leachate

  • Daisuke InoueEmail author
  • Kazuki Hisada
  • Takuya Okumura
  • Yoshinori Yabuki
  • Gen Yoshida
  • Masashi Kuroda
  • Michihiko Ike
Original Paper


1,4-Dioxane (DX) is a recalcitrant cyclic ether that has gained attention as an emerging pollutant in the aquatic environment. Enrichment of indigenous DX-degrading bacteria, which are considered to be minor populations even in DX-impacted environments, is the key for efficient biological DX removal. Therefore, this study aimed to explore carbon sources applicable for the enrichment of DX-degrading bacteria present in landfill leachate, which is a potential source of DX pollution. Microorganisms collected from landfill leachate were cultivated on six different carbon sources (DX, tetrahydrofuran (THF), 1,3,5-trioxane (TX), ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and 1,4-butanediol (BD)) in a sequential batch mode. Consequently, enrichment cultures cultivated on THF in addition to DX improved the DX degradation ability compared to that of the original leachate sample, while those on the other test carbon sources did not. The results indicated that THF can be an alternative carbon source to enrich DX-degrading bacteria, and that TX, EG, DEG and BD are not applicable to concentrate DX-degrading bacteria in complex microbial consortia. In addition, sequencing analyses of 16S rRNA and soluble di-iron monooxygenase (SDIMO) genes revealed notable dominance of thm/dxm genes involved in group 5 SDIMO both in DX- and THF-enrichment cultures. The analysis also showed a predominance of Pseudonocardia in THF-enrichment culture, suggesting that Pseudonocardia harboring thm/dxm genes contributes to enhanced DX degradation in THF-enrichment culture.


Carbon source 1,4-Dioxane-degrading bacteria Enrichment Landfill leachate Soluble di-iron monooxygenase thm/dxm genes 



This study was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP16K12624 and JP19H04301.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10532_2019_9891_MOESM1_ESM.docx (69 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 69 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringOsaka UniversitySuitaJapan
  2. 2.Research Institute of Environment, Agriculture and Fisheries, Osaka PrefectureHabikinoJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Agricultural ScienceKobe UniversityNadaJapan

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