Screening of a beta-cypermethrin-degrading bacterial strain Brevibacillus parabrevis BCP-09 and its biochemical degradation pathway
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A novel beta-cypermethrin (Beta-CP)-degrading strain isolated from activated sludge was identified as Brevibacillus parabrevis BCP-09 based on its morphological and physio-biochemical characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Strain BCP-09 could effectively degrade Beta-CP at pH 5.0–9.0, 20–40 °C, and 10–500 mg L−1 Beta-CP. Under optimal conditions (pH 7.41, 38.9 °C, 30.9 mg L−1 Beta-CP), 75.87% Beta-CP was degraded within 3 days. Beta-CP degradation (half-life, 33.45 h) and strain BCP-09 growth were respectively described using first-order-kinetic and logistic-kinetic models. Seven metabolites were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry- methyl salicylate, catechol, phthalic acid, salicylic acid, 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde, and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). The major Beta-CP metabolite, 3-PBA was further degraded into phenol, benzoic acid, and 4-methylhexanoic acid. BCP-09 also degraded aromatic compounds such as phenol, catechol, and protocatechuic acid. Beta-CP appears to be mainly degraded into 3-PBA, which is continuously degraded into smaller benzene or chain compounds. Thus, strain BCP-09 could form a complete degradation system for Beta-CP and might be considered a promising strain for application in the bioremediation of environments and agricultural products polluted by Beta-CP.
KeywordsBeta-cypermethrin Brevibacillus parabrevis Biodegradation Metabolites Degradation pathway
3-Phenoxy benzoic acid
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
High-performance liquid chromatography
Mineral salt medium
Response surface methodology
This work was financially supported by the Key Scientific Research Fund of Xihua University (z1310525), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31371775), the Natural Science Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education (14ZB0122), the Open Research Subject of Key Laboratory of Food Biotechnology of Sichuan province of China (SZJJ2014-011), the Chunhui Program of Ministry of Education of China (Z2015122), and the Application Foundation Project of Sichuan Provincial Department of Science and Technology (2015JY0164 and 2016JY0253).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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