Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 28, Issue 12, pp 3073–3102 | Cite as

Alien plant invasion in the Indian Himalayan Region: state of knowledge and research priorities

  • Ravi Pathak
  • Vikram S. NegiEmail author
  • Ranbeer S. Rawal
  • Indra D. Bhatt
Review Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Invasive species


Invasion by alien species is a global problem and forms one of the major drivers of global change. The researches on plant invasion have grown rapidly across the globe since the mid-twentieth century. However, in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) such studies are inadequate and have not been systematically conducted. Lack of empirical evidences on various described aspects of plant invasion in IHR are likely to aggravate the issue of invasion management in the region. This scenario would become more worst under changing climate. This study analyzed the results of an extensive review of the available information generated through Web of Science and Google scholar. A total of 297 naturalized alien plant species belongs to 65 families in the IHR are reported. Of the total 297 naturalized alien plant species in IHR, maximum species occur in Himachal Pradesh (232; 78.1%) followed by Jammu & Kashmir (192; 64.6%) and Uttarakhand (181; 60.90%). Among various invasive species, Lantana camara, Ageratina adenophora, Parthenium hysterophorus and Ageratum conyzoides have been reported from most of the IHR states and proliferated over larger area. Evidences available in the published studies are indicative that with tourism promotion and increasing roads networks, that passes through forests, many of the alien species in the IHR have started invading forests and even in alpine ecosystems. This study observed expansion of Ageratina adenophora up to 2900 m, which is higher than its reported elevation range (300–2800 m) in west Himalaya. These evidences suggest possible encroachment by alien species in hitherto invasion resilient higher Himalaya, particularly with emerging trends of increasing temperature and human disturbances. The present study also provides a multistage framework for investment on invasion researches in IHR. This will allow developing appropriate management strategies and policy planning for addressing issues pertaining to plant invasions across the IHR states.


Invasion Naturalized alien plant species Anthropogenic disturbance Management strategies Eradication Climate change Indian Himalayan Region 



The authors are thankful to the Director G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora for facilities and encouragement. Funding support (DST/SPLICE/CCP/NMSHE/TF/GBPIHED/2014 [G] dated 2/09/14) from Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India under National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, Task Force-3 ‘Forest Resources and Plant Biodiversity’ is gratefully acknowledged. We are thankful to Dr. Suresh Rana for helping in the review process. The comments/suggestions of anonymous reviewers have helped improving the contents of this paper; we thank them.

Supplementary material

10531_2019_1829_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (47 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 46 kb)
10531_2019_1829_MOESM2_ESM.docx (61 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 61 kb)


  1. Adhikari D, Tiwary R, Barik SK (2015) Modelling hotspots for invasive alien plants in India. PLoS ONE 10(7):e0134665Google Scholar
  2. Adkins S, Shabbir A (2014) Biology, ecology and management of the invasive parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). Pest Management Science 70(7):1023–1029Google Scholar
  3. Alexander JM, Kueffer C, Daehler CC, Edwards PJ, Pauchard A, Seipel T, Arévalo J, Cavieres L, Dietz H, Jakobs G, McDougall K (2011) Assembly of nonnative floras along elevational gradients explained by directional ecological filtering. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(2):656–661Google Scholar
  4. Araf M, Kumar S, Hamal IA (2010) Ant pollination of an invasive non-native weed, euphorbia geniculata ortega in North West Himalaya (India). The Bioscan 5(1):81–83Google Scholar
  5. Arshid S, Wani AA (2012) Polla level. As being yen biology and stigma receptivity in Myriophyllum spicatum L. an invasive species in Kashmir Himalayan aquatic system. Int J Adv Life Sci 3:13–20Google Scholar
  6. Babu S, Love A, Babu CR (2009) Ecological restoration of lantana-invaded landscapes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India. Ecol Restor 27(4):467–477Google Scholar
  7. Baret S, Rouget M, Richardson DM, Lavergne C, Egoh B, Dupont J, Strasberg D (2006) Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Re´union (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecol 31:747–758Google Scholar
  8. Barney JN, Tekiela DR, Barrios-Garcia MN, Dimarco RD, Hufbauer RA, Leipzig-Scott P, Nunez MA, Pauchard A, Pyšek P, Vítková M, Maxwell BD (2015) Global invader impact network (GIIN): toward standardized evaluation of the ecological impacts of invasive plants. Ecol Evol 5(14):2878–2889Google Scholar
  9. Barua IC, Deka J, Devi M, Deka RL, Moran J (2017) Weeds as emerging threat to biodiversity: a consequence of spread of Ludwigia peruviana in Dhansiri and Kopili catchment areas of Assam, North East India. Curr Sci 112(9):1904–1914Google Scholar
  10. Batish DR, Lavanya K, Singh HP, Kohli RK (2007) Phenolic allelo-chemicals released by Chenopodium murale affect the growth, nodulation and macromolecule content in chickpea and pea. Plant Growth Regul 51(2):119–128Google Scholar
  11. Batish DR, Kaur S, Singh HP, Kohli RK (2009) Role of root-mediated interactions in phytotoxic interference of Ageratum conyzoides with rice (Oryza sativa). Flora-Morphol Distrib Funct Ecol Plants 204(5):388–395Google Scholar
  12. Bess HA, Haramoto FH (1959) Biological control of pamakani, Eupatorium adenophorum, in Hawaii by a tephritid gall fly, Procecidochares utilis. 2. Population studies of the weed, the fly, and the parasites of the fly. Ecology 40(2):244–249Google Scholar
  13. Bhardwaj S, Kapoor KS, Singh HP (2014) Studies on allelopathic effects of ageratina adenophora sprengel (King and Robinson) on some weed plants growing in forest ecosystem. Int J Theor Appl Sci 6(2):1Google Scholar
  14. Bhatt YD, Rawat YS, Singh SP (1994) Changes in ecosystem functioning after replacement of forest by Lantana shrubland in Kumaun Himalaya. J Veg Sci 5(1):67–70Google Scholar
  15. Bhuju DR, Shrestha BB, Niraula RR (2013) Study on invasive alien species (IAPS) as drivers to deforestation and degradation of forests in different physiographic regions of Nepal. BS JV API, Baneshwor-10, Kathmandu, p 60Google Scholar
  16. Bradley BA, Blumenthal DM, Wilcove DS, Ziska LH (2010) Predicting plant invasions in an era of global change. Trends Ecol Evol 25(5):310–318Google Scholar
  17. Bughani I, Rajwar GS (2005) Primary productivity and the impacts of the exotic weed Eupatorium glandulosum in a montane grassland of Garhwal Himalaya. Environmentalist 25(1):31–38Google Scholar
  18. Caut S, Angulo E, Courchamp F (2009) Avoiding surprise effects on Surprise Island: alien species control in a multitrophic level perspective. Biol Invasions 11(7):1689–1703Google Scholar
  19. Chakravarty AK, Mazumder T, Chatterjee SN (2011) Anti-inflammatory potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng through alteration in production of TNF-α, ROS and expression of certain genes. Evid-Based Complement Altern Med. Google Scholar
  20. Chatterjee R (2015) Impact of Lantana camara in the Indian society. Int J Environ 4(2):348–354Google Scholar
  21. Colautti RI, MacIsaac HJ (2004) A neutral terminology to define ‘invasive’species. Divers Distrib 10(2):135–141Google Scholar
  22. Daehler CC, Carino DA (2000) Predicting invasive plants: pros-pects for general screening system based on current regional mod-els. Biol Invasions 2:93–102Google Scholar
  23. Daneshgar P, Jose S (2008) Mechanisms of plant invasion. In: Kohli RK, Jose S, Singh HP, Batish DR (eds) Invasive plants and forest ecosystems. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 11–27Google Scholar
  24. Dar PA, Reshi ZA (2015) Do alien plant invasions cause biotic homogenization of terrestrial ecosystems in the Kashmir Valley, India? Trop Ecol 56(1):111–123Google Scholar
  25. Das K, Duarah P (2013) Invasive alien plant species in the roadside areas of Jorhat, Assam: their harmful effects and beneficial uses. J Eng Res Appl 3(5):353–358Google Scholar
  26. Datta A, Kühn I, Ahmad M, Michalski S, Auge H (2017) Processes affecting altitudinal distribution of invasive Ageratina adenophora in western Himalaya: the role of local adaptation and the importance of different life-cycle stages. PLoS ONE 12(11):e0187708Google Scholar
  27. Dawson W, Moser D, van Kleunen M, Kreft H, Pergl J, Pyšek P, Weigelt P, Winter M, Lenzner B, Blackburn TM, Dyer EE (2017) Global hotspots and correlates of alien species richness across taxonomic groups. Nat Ecol Evol 1(7):0186Google Scholar
  28. Debnath A, Debnath B (2017) Diversity, invasion status and usages of alien plant species in northeastern hilly state of Tripura: a confluence of Indo-Barman hotspot. Am J Plant Sci 8(02):212Google Scholar
  29. Debnath B, Debnath A, Paul C (2015a) Diversity of invasive alien weeds in the major roadside areas of tripura and their effect and uses. J Chem Biol Phys Sci 5:3091–3102Google Scholar
  30. Debnath B, Debnath A, Paul C (2015b) Diversity of invasive plant species in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Tripura, NorthEast India. Life Sci Leafl 70:9–21Google Scholar
  31. Devi M (2017). Invasive species mikania micrantha an environmental threat, its control with reference to ERI silk worm. In: Proceedings of 31st research world international conference, Saint Petersburg, Russia, pp 8–11Google Scholar
  32. Dhar U, Rawal RS, Samant SS (1997) Structural diversity and representativeness of forest vegetation in a protected area of Kumaun Himalaya, India: implications for conservation. Biodivers Conserv 6(8):1045–1062Google Scholar
  33. Dhileepan K (2007) Biological control of parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus) in Australian rangeland translates to improved grass production. Weed Sci 55(5):497–501Google Scholar
  34. Dhyani SK (1978) Allelopathic potential of Ageratina adenophora on seed germination of Lantana camara var. aculeata. Indian J For 1(4):311Google Scholar
  35. Dietz H, Edwards PJ (2006) Recognition that causal processes change during plant invasion helps explain conflicts in evidence. Ecology 87:1359–1367Google Scholar
  36. Dobhal PK, Batish DR, Kohli RK (2009) Phyto-sociological transformations in burnt Lantana Camara L invaded communities in context of unburnt invaded and non-invaded plant communities. The Ecoscan 3:41–45Google Scholar
  37. Dobhal PK, Kohli RK, Batish DR (2010) Evaluation of the impact of Lantana camara L. invasion, on four major woody shrubs, along Nayar river of Pauri Garhwal, in Uttarakhand Himalaya. Int J Biodivers Conserv 2(7):155–161Google Scholar
  38. Dobhal PK, Kohli RK, Batish DR (2011) Impact of Lantana camara L. invasion on riparian vegetation of Nayar region in Garhwal Himalayas (Uttarakhand, India). J Ecol Nat Environ 3(1):11–22Google Scholar
  39. Dogra KS, Sood SK (2012) Phytotoxicity of Parthenium hysterophorus residues towards growth of three native plant species (Acacia catechu willd, Achyranthes aspera L. and Cassia tora L.) in Himachal Pradesh, India. Int J Plant Physiol Biochem 4(5):105–109Google Scholar
  40. Dogra KS, Kohli RK, Sood SK (2009) An assessment and impact of three invasive species in the Shivalik hills of Himachal Pradesh, India. Int J Biodivers Conserv 1(1):4–10Google Scholar
  41. Dogra KS, Sood SK, Sharma R (2011) Distribution, biology and ecology of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (congress grass) an invasive species in the North-Western Indian Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh). Afr J Plant Sci 5(11):682–687Google Scholar
  42. Dukes JS, Mooney HA (2004) Disruption of ecosystem processes in western North America by invasive species. Rev Hist Nat 77(3):411–437Google Scholar
  43. Ehrenfeld JG (2003) Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes. Ecosystems 6(6):503–523Google Scholar
  44. FSI (2017) State of forest report. Forest Survey of India, (Ministry of Environment & Forests), DehradunGoogle Scholar
  45. Ghisalberti EL (2000) Lantana camara Linn. (Review). Fitoterapia 71:467–485Google Scholar
  46. Government of Sikkim (2015) Sikkim state action plan on climate change. Government of Sikkim, Gangtok, p 152Google Scholar
  47. Haider S, Alexander J, Dietz H, Trepl L, Edwards PJ, Kueffer C (2010) The role of bioclimatic origin, residence time and habitat context in shaping non-native plant distributions along an altitudinal gradient. Biol Invasions 12(12):4003–4018Google Scholar
  48. Hejda M, Pyšek P, Jarošík V (2009) Impact of invasive plants on the species richness, diversity and composition of invaded communities. J Ecol 97(3):393–403Google Scholar
  49. Hellmann JJ, Byers JE, Bierwagen BG, Dukes JS (2008) five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species. Conserv Biol 22(3):534–543Google Scholar
  50. Hobbs RJ, Huenneke LF (1992) Disturbance, diversity, and invasion: implications for conservation. Conserv Biol 6:324–337Google Scholar
  51. Huddle JA, Awada T, Martin DL, Zhou X, Pegg SE, Josiah SJ (2011) Do invasive riparian woody plants affect hydrology and ecosystem processes? Great Plains Res 21:49–71Google Scholar
  52. Hulme PE (2003) Biological invasions: winning the science battles but losing the conservation war? Oryx 37(02):178–193Google Scholar
  53. Hulme PE (2009) Trade, transport and trouble: managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization. J Appl Ecol 46(1):10–18Google Scholar
  54. Inada A, Nakanishi T, Tokuda H, Sharma OP (1997) Antitumor activities of lantadenes on mouse skin tumors and mouse hepatic tumors. Plant Med 63:476–478Google Scholar
  55. Inderjit Pergl J, van Kleunen M, Hejda M, Babu CR, Majumdar S, Singh P, Singh SP, Salamma S, Rao BR, Pyšek P (2018) Naturalized alien flora of the Indian states: biogeographic patterns, taxonomic structure and drivers of species richness. Biol Invasions 20(6):1625–1638Google Scholar
  56. Jaryan V, Chopra S, Uniyal SK, Singh RD (2007) Spreading fast yet unnoticed: are we in for another invasion? Curr Sci 93(11):1483Google Scholar
  57. Jaryan V, Uniyal SK, Gupta RC, Singh RD (2013) Alien flora of Indian Himalayan State of Himachal Pradesh. Environ Monit Assess 185(7):6129–6153Google Scholar
  58. Jaryan V, Uniyal SK, Gupta RC, Singh RD (2014) Phenological documentation of an invasive species, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. Environ Monit Assess 186(7):4423–4429Google Scholar
  59. Jaryan V, Uniyal SK, Datta A, Gupta RC (2016) Late fruiting in Sapium sebiferum: an effective dispersal strategy. Trop Ecol 57(2):375–379Google Scholar
  60. Jeschke J, Aparicio LG, Haider S, Heger T, Lortie C, Pyšek P, Strayer D (2012) Support for major hypotheses in invasion biology is uneven and declining. NeoBiota 14:1Google Scholar
  61. Julien MH, Griffiths MW (1998) Biological control of weeds. A world catalogue of agents and their target weeds. ACIAR, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  62. Kala CP (2004) Pastoralism, plant conservation, and conflicts on proliferation of Himalayan knotweed in high altitude protected areas of the Western Himalaya, India. Biodivers Conserv 13(5):985–995Google Scholar
  63. Kandwal R, Jeganathan C, Tolpekin V, Kushwaha SPS (2009) Discriminating the invasive species, ‘Lantana’ using vegetation indices. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 37(2):275Google Scholar
  64. Kannan R, Aravind NA, Joseph G, Ganeshaiah KN, Shaanker RU (2008) Lantana Craft: a weed for a need. Biotech News 3(2):9–11Google Scholar
  65. Katoch R, Singh A, Thakur N (2012) Allelopathic influence of dominant weeds of North-Western Himalayan region on common cereal crops. Intl J Environ Sci 3:84–97Google Scholar
  66. Kaur B, Bhatia S, Sharma KK (2014) Diversity and impact of invasive alien plant species of family Asteraceae in Jammu district (Jammu and Kashmir India). Int J Interdiscipl Multidiscipl Stud 1(8):51–62Google Scholar
  67. Keller NM (2013) The legalization of industrial hemp and what it could mean for Indiana’s biofuel industry. Ind. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 23:555Google Scholar
  68. Khan AH (1944) On the lantana bug (Teleonemia scrupulosa Stal). Indian J Entomol 6:149–161Google Scholar
  69. Khanduri A, Biswas S, Vasistha HB, Rathod D, Jha SK (2017) A status of invasive alien species plant diversity in Tehri district forest ecosystem of Garhwal Himalayan Region. Curr World Environ 12(2):377Google Scholar
  70. Khuroo AA, Rashid I, Reshi Z, Dar GH, Wafai BA (2007) The alien flora of Kashmir Himalaya. Biol Invasions 9(3):269–292Google Scholar
  71. Khuroo AA, Reshi Z, Rashid I, Dar GH, Khan ZS (2008) Operational characterization of alien invasive flora and its management implications. Biodivers Conserv 17(13):3181–3194Google Scholar
  72. Khuroo AA, Malik AH, Reshi ZA, Dar GH (2010) From ornamental to detrimental: plant invasion of Leucanthemum vulgare(Lan.) (Ox-eye Daizy) in Kashmir Valley, India. Curr Sci 98(5):600–602Google Scholar
  73. Khuroo AA, Reshi ZA, Dar GH, Hamal IA (2012a) Plant invasions in Jammu and Kashmir state India. In: Bhatt et al (eds) Invasive alien plants: an ecological appraisal for the indian subcontinent. CABI, Wallingford, pp 216–226Google Scholar
  74. Khuroo AA, Reshi ZA, Malik AH, Weber E, Rashid I, Dar GH (2012b) Alien flora of India: taxonomic composition, invasion status and biogeographic affiliations. Biol Invasions 14(1):99–113Google Scholar
  75. Kirschbaum MU (2000) Forest growth and species distribution in a changing climate. Tree Physiol 20(5–6):309–322Google Scholar
  76. Kohli RK, Dogra KS, Batish DR, Singh HP (2004) Impact of invasive plants on the structure and composition of natural vegetation of north western Indian Himalayas. Weed Technol 18:1296–1300Google Scholar
  77. Kohli RK, Batish DR, Singh HP, Dogra KS (2006) Status, invasiveness and environmental threats of three tropical American invasive weeds (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ageratum conyzoides L., Lantana camara L.) in India. Biol Invasions 8(7):1501–1510Google Scholar
  78. Kosaka Y, Saikia B, Mingki T, Tag H, Riba T, Ando K (2010) Roadside distribution patterns of invasive alien plants along an altitudinal gradient in Arunachal Himalaya, India. Mt Res Dev 30:252–258Google Scholar
  79. Kumar S (2015) History, progress and prospects of classical biological control in India. Indian J Weed Sci 47(3):306–320Google Scholar
  80. Lake J, Leishman MR (2004) Invasion success of exotic plants in natural ecosystems: the role of disturbance, plant attributes and freedom from herbivores. Biol Conserv 117:215–226Google Scholar
  81. Lamsal P, Kumar L, Aryal A, Atreya K (2018) Invasive alien plant species dynamics in the Himalayan region under climate change. Ambio. Google Scholar
  82. Larson DL, Phillips-Mao L, Quiram G, Sharpe L, Stark R, Sugita S, Weiler A (2011) A framework for sustainable invasive species management: environmental, social, and economic objectives. J Environ Manage 92(1):14–22Google Scholar
  83. Louda SM, Rand TA, Arnett AE, McClay AS, Shea K, McEachern AK (2005) Evaluation of ecological risk to populations of a threatened plant from an invasive biocontrol insect. Ecol Appl 15(1):234–249Google Scholar
  84. Love A, Babu S, Babu CR (2009) Management of Lantana, an invasive alien weed, in forest ecosystems of India. Curr Sci 97(10):1421–1429Google Scholar
  85. Lowry E, Rollinson EJ, Laybourn AJ, Scott TE, Aiello-Lammens ME, Gray SM, Mickley J, Gurevitch J (2013a) Biological invasions: a field synopsis, systematic review, and database of the literature. Ecol Evol 3(1):182–196Google Scholar
  86. Lowry E, Rollinson EJ, Laybourn AJ, Scott TE, Aiello-Lammens ME, Gray SM, Mickley J, Gurevitch J (2013b) Biological invasions: a field synopsis, systematic review, and database of the literature. Ecol Evol 3(1):182–196Google Scholar
  87. Mack RN, Simberloff D, Mark Lonsdale W, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 10(3):689–710Google Scholar
  88. Maiti GG, Bakshi DG (1981) Invasion of exotic weeds in West Bengal since 1903: dicotyledones and monocotyledones. J Econ Taxon Bot 2:1–21Google Scholar
  89. Mandal G, Joshi SP (2014a) Changes in physicochemical properties of soil encourage the invasion establishment and carbon dynamics of Lantana camara from Doon Valley, Western Himalaya, India. Aceh Int J Sci Technol 3(2):87–105Google Scholar
  90. Mandal G, Joshi SP (2014b) Invasion establishment and habitat suitability of Chromolaena odorata (L) King and Robinson over time and space in the western Himalayan forests of India. J Asia-Pac Biodivers 7(4):391–400Google Scholar
  91. Mao AA, Gogoi R (2010) Fire-induced invasion of an endemic plant species alters forest structure and diversity: a study from north-east India. Curr Sci 98(4):483–485Google Scholar
  92. Maule WJ (2015) Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy? Br J Biomed Sci 72(2):85–91Google Scholar
  93. McDougall KL, Alexander JM, Haider S, Pauchard A, Walsh NG, Kueffer C (2011) Alien flora of mountains: global comparisons for the development of local preventive measures against plant invasions. Divers Distrib 17(1):103–111Google Scholar
  94. McEvoy PB, Coombs EM (1999) Biological control of plant invaders: regional patterns, field experiments, and structured population models. Ecol Appl 9(2):387–401Google Scholar
  95. McKee JK, Sciulli PW, Fooce CD, Waite TA (2004) Forecasting global biodiversity threats associated with human population growth. Biol Conserv 115:161–164Google Scholar
  96. Messing RH, Wright MG (2006) Biological control of invasive species: solution or pollution? Front Ecol Environ 4(3):132–140Google Scholar
  97. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2003) Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  98. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and Human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  99. Moktan S, Das AP (2013) Diversity and distribution of invasive alien plants along the altitudinal gradient in Darjiling Himalaya, India. Pleione 7(2):305–313Google Scholar
  100. Moran VC, Hoffmann JH, Zimmermann HG (2005) Biological control of invasive alien plants in South Africa: necessity, circumspection, and success. Front Ecol Environ 3(2):71–77Google Scholar
  101. Muniappan R, Viraktamath CA (1986) Status of biological control of the weed, Lantana camara in India. Trop Pest Manag 32:40–42Google Scholar
  102. Myers N (1993) Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world. Bioscience 43(11):752–761Google Scholar
  103. Naithani HB (1987) Parthenium hysterophorus a pernicious weed in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. Indian For 113:709–710Google Scholar
  104. Naylor RL (2000) The economics of alien species invasions. Invasive species in a changing world. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 241–259Google Scholar
  105. Negi PS, Hajra PK (2007) Alien flora of Doon valley, Northwest Himalaya. Curr Sci 92(7):968–978Google Scholar
  106. Negi GCS, Sharma S, Vishvakarma SC, Samant SS, Maikhuri RK, Prasad RC, Palni LMS (2013) Lantana camara in India: an ecological review. GBPIHED publication, AlmoraGoogle Scholar
  107. Negi VS, Joshi BC, Pathak R, Rawal RS, Sekar KC (2018a) Assessment of fuelwood diversity and consumption patterns in cold desert part of Indian Himalaya: implication for conservation and quality of life. J Clean Prod 196:23–31Google Scholar
  108. Negi VS, Kewlani P, Pathak R, Bhatt D, Bhatt ID, Rawal RS, Sundriyal RC, Nandi SK (2018b) Criteria and indicators for promoting cultivation and conservation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Western Himalaya, India. Ecol Indic 93:434–446Google Scholar
  109. Negi VS, Pathak R, Rawal RS, Bhatt ID, Sharma S (2019) Long-term ecological monitoring on forest ecosystems in Indian Himalayan Region: criteria and indicator approach. Ecol Indic 102:374–381Google Scholar
  110. Palni LMS, Rawal RS (2013) The himalayan biodiversity: richness, representativeness, uniqueness and life-support values. G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development (GBPIHED), Almora, p 84Google Scholar
  111. Pandey A, Sharma GP (2013) Plant invasion researches in India: how long do we have to wait for appropriate management options? Curr Sci 104(4):408–409Google Scholar
  112. Pauchard A, Kueffer C, Dietz H, Daehler CC, Alexander J, Edwards PJ, Arévalo JR, Cavieres LA, Guisan A, Haider S, Jakobs G, McDougall K, Millar CI, Naylor BJ, Parks CJ, Rew LJ, Seipel T (2009) Ain’tno mountain high enough: plant invasions reaching new elevations. Front Ecol Environ 7(9):479–486Google Scholar
  113. Perrings C, Mooney H, Williamson M (2010) Bio-invasions and globalization: ecology, economics, management, and policy. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  114. Priyanka N, Joshi PK (2013) Assessment of plant invasion and forest fires linkage-a case study of Lantana camara. Int J Technol Enhanc Emerg Eng Res 2(10):40–46Google Scholar
  115. Pyšek P, Richardson DM (2006) The biogeography of naturalization in alien plants. J Biogeogr 33(12):2040–2050Google Scholar
  116. Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Hulme PE, Kühn I, Wild J, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Chiron F, Didžiulis V, Essl F, Genovesi P (2010) Disentangling the role of environmental and human pressures on biological invasions across Europe. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(27):12157–12162Google Scholar
  117. Rai PK (2015) Plant invasion ecology of an indo-Burma hot spot region along the disturbance gradient: a case study. Int Res J Environ Sci 4:108–114Google Scholar
  118. Rai PK, Singh MM (2015) Lantana camara invasion in urban forests of an Indo-Burma hotspot region and its ecosustainable management implication through biomonitoring of particulate matter. J Asia-Pac Biodivers 8(4):375–381Google Scholar
  119. Ramaswami G, Prasad S, Westcott D, Subuddhi SP, Sukumar R (2014) Addressing the management of a long-established invasive shrub: the case of Lantana camara in Indian forests. Indian For 140(2):129–136Google Scholar
  120. Rashid I, Reshi ZA (2010) Does carbon addition to soil counteract disturbance-promoted alien plant invasions? Trop Ecol 51(2):339–345Google Scholar
  121. Reddy CS (2008) Catalogue of invasive alien flora of India. Life Sci J 5(2):84–89Google Scholar
  122. Rejmanek M (1989) Invasibility of plant communities. In: Drake JA et al (eds) Biological invasions: a global perspective. Wiley, New York, pp 369–388Google Scholar
  123. Reshi Z, Rashid I, Khuroo AA, Wafai BA (2008) Effect of invasion by Centaurea iberica on community assembly of a mountain grassland of Kashmir Himalaya, India. Trop Ecol 49:147–156Google Scholar
  124. Rogers HH, Runion GB, Prior SA, Price AJ, Torbert HA, Gjerstad DH (2008) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on invasive plants: comparison of purple and yellow nut sedge (Cyperus rotundus L. and C. esculentus L.). J Environ Qual 37(2):395–400Google Scholar
  125. Samant SS, Dhar U (1997) Diversity, endemism and economic potential of wild edible plants of Indian Himalaya. Int J Sustain Dev World Ecol 4(3):179–191Google Scholar
  126. Samant SS, Dhar U, Palni LMS (1998) Medicinal plants of Indian Himalaya. Gyanodaya Prakashan, NainitalGoogle Scholar
  127. Saxena MK (2000) Aqueous leachate of Lantana camara kills water hyacinth. J Chem Ecol 26(10):2435–2447Google Scholar
  128. Schweiger O, Biesmeijer JC, Bommarco R, Hickler T, Hulme PE, Klotz S, Kühn I, Moora M, Nielsen A, Ohlemüller R, Petanidou T (2010) Multiple stressors on biotic interactions: how climate change and alien species interact to affect pollination. Biol Rev 85(4):777–795Google Scholar
  129. Sekar KC (2012) Invasive alien plants of Indian Himalayan region—diversity and implication. Am J Plant Sci 3(02):177Google Scholar
  130. Sekar KC, Manikandan R, Srivastava SK (2012) Invasive alien plants of Uttarakhand Himalaya. Proc Natl Acad Sci India Sect B 82(3):375–383Google Scholar
  131. Sekar KC, Pandey A, Srivastava SK, Giri L (2015) Invasive alien plants of Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian For 141(5):520–527Google Scholar
  132. Shah MA, Reshi Z (2007) Invasion by alien Anthemis cotula L. in a biodiversity hotspot: release from native foes or relief from alien friends? Curr Sci 92(1):21–22Google Scholar
  133. Shah MA, Reshi ZA (2014) Characterization of alien aquatic flora of Kashmir Himalaya: implications for invasion management. Trop Ecol 55(2):143–157Google Scholar
  134. Shah MA, Reshi ZA, Lavoie C (2011) Predicting plant invasiveness from native range size: clues from the Kashmir Himalaya. J Plant Ecol 5(2):167–173Google Scholar
  135. Shahzad A (2012) Hemp fiber and its composites: a review. J Compos Mater 46(8):973–986Google Scholar
  136. Shankar U, Yadav AS, Rai JPN, Tripathi RS (2011) Status of Alien Plant Invasions in the North-eastern Region of India. In: Bhatt JR et al (eds) Invasive alien plants: an ecological appraisal for the Indian subcontinent. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  137. Sharma OP, Makkar HPS, Dawra RK (1988) A review of the noxious plant Lantana camara. Toxicon 26:975–987Google Scholar
  138. Sharma GP, Singh JS, Raghubanshi AS (2005) Plant invasions: emerging trends and future implications. Curr Sci 88(5):726–734Google Scholar
  139. Sharma OP, Sharma S, Pattabhi V, Mahato SB, Sharma PD (2007) A review of the hepatotoxic plant. Lantana camara. J Sci Ind Res 37:313–352Google Scholar
  140. Sharma E, Molden D, Wester P, Shrestha RM (2016) The Hindu Kush Himalayan monitoring and assessment programme: action to sustain a global asset. Mt Res Dev 36(2):236–240Google Scholar
  141. Sikkim Biodiversity Action Plan (2011) Sikkim Biodiversity Conservation and Forest Management Project (SBFP) Forest, Environment and Wildlife Management Department Government of Sikkim, p 44Google Scholar
  142. Simberloff D (2000) Global climate change and introduced species in United States forests. Sci Total Environ 262:253–261Google Scholar
  143. Simberloff D, Martin JL, Genovesi P, Maris V, Wardle DA, Aronson J, Courchamp F, Galil B, García-Berthou E, Pascal M, Pyšek P (2013) Impacts of biological invasions: what’s what and the way forward. Trends Ecol Evol 28(1):58–66Google Scholar
  144. Singh SP (2014) Attributes of Himalayan forest ecosystems: they are not temperate forests. Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad 80(2):221–233Google Scholar
  145. Singh A, Dangwal LR (2014) Noxious weeds of district Rajouri, Jammu and Kasmir, India. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 3(10):1442–1451Google Scholar
  146. Singh DK, Hajra PK (1996) Floristic diversity. Biodiversity status in the Himalaya. British Council, Delhi, pp 23–38Google Scholar
  147. Singh B, Phukan SJ, Sinha BK, Singh VN, Borthakur SK (2011a) Conservation strategies for Nepenthes Khasiana in the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve of Garo Hills, Northeast, India. Int J Conserv Sci 2(1):55–64Google Scholar
  148. Singh SP, Bassignana-Khadka I, Singh Karky B, Sharma E (2011b) Climate change in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas: the state of current knowledge. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), LalitpurGoogle Scholar
  149. Singh HP, Batish DR, Dogra KS, Kaur S, Kohli RK, Negi A (2014) Negative effect of litter of invasive weed Lantana camara on structure and composition of vegetation in the lower Siwalik Hills, northern India. Environ Monit Assess 186(6):3379–3389Google Scholar
  150. Singh TB, Das AK, Singh PK, Singh TB, Das AK, Singh PK (2015) Study of alien and invasive flora of valley district of Manipur and their control. Int J Innov Sci Technol 1:616–626Google Scholar
  151. Singh N, Patel NR, Singh J, Raja P, Soni P, Parihar JS (2016) Carbon exchange in some invasive species in the Himalayan foothills. Trop Ecol 57(2):263–270Google Scholar
  152. Singh A, Nautiyal MC, Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW (2017) Ethnomedicinal plants used by local inhabitants of Jakholi block, Rudraprayag district, western Himalaya, India. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 13(1):49Google Scholar
  153. Stachowicz JJ, Terwin JR, Whitlatch RB, Osman RW (2002) Linking climate change and biological invasions: ocean warming facilitates nonindigenous species invasions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99(24):15497–15500Google Scholar
  154. State Action Plan on Climate change: Mizoram (2012–2017) Directorate of Science and Technology, Govenrment of MizoramGoogle Scholar
  155. Thapa S, Chitale V, Rijal SJ, Bisht N, Shrestha BB (2018) Understanding the dynamics in distribution of invasive alien plant species under predicted climate change in Western Himalaya. PLoS ONE 13(4):e0195752Google Scholar
  156. Tilman D (1999) The ecological consequences of changes in biodiversity: a search for general principles. Ecology 80(5):1455–1474Google Scholar
  157. Tripathi RS (2013) Alien plant invasion and its ecological implications: an Indian perspective with particular reference to biodiversity-rich regions. In: Jose S et al (eds) Invasive plant ecology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 137–146Google Scholar
  158. Tripathi RS, Yadav AS (1982) Population regulation of Ageratina adenophora spreng and E. riparium regel: effect of population density, soil nitrogen and light intensity. Plant Soil 65(1):35–49Google Scholar
  159. Tripathi RS, Singh RS, Rai JPN (1981) Allelopathic potential of Ageratina adenophora, a dominant ruderal weed of Meghalaya. Proc Indian Acad Sci 47(3):458–465Google Scholar
  160. Tripathi RS, Kushwaha SPS, Yadav A (2006) Ecology of three invasive species of eupatorium: a review. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 32(4):301–326Google Scholar
  161. Vander Zanden MJ, Hansen GJ, Higgins SN, Kornis MS (2010) A pound of prevention, plus a pound of cure: early detection and eradication of invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. J Great Lakes Res 36(1):199–205Google Scholar
  162. Varshney VK, Gupta PK, Naithani S, Khullar R, Bhatt A, Soni PL (2006) Carboxymethylation of a-celluloseisolated from Lantana camara with respect to degree ofsubstitution and rheological behavior. Carbohydr Polym 63:40–45Google Scholar
  163. Vilà M, Weber E, Antonio CM (2000) Conservation implications of invasion by plant hybridization. Biol Invasions 2(3):207–217Google Scholar
  164. Vilà M, Basnou C, Pyšek P, Josefsson M, Genovesi P, Gollasch S, Nentwig W, Olenin S, Roques A, Roy D, Hulme PE (2010) How well do we understand the impacts of alien species on ecosystem services? A pan-European, cross-taxa assessment. Front Ecol Environ 8(3):135–144Google Scholar
  165. Vitousek PM, D’Antonio CM, Loope LL, Westbrooks R (1996) Biological invasions as global environmental change. Am Sci 84(5):468Google Scholar
  166. Walther GR, Roques A, Hulme PE, Sykes MT, Pyšek P, Kühn I, Zobel M, Bacher S, Botta-Dukat Z, Bugmann H, Czucz B (2009) Alien species in a warmer world: risks and opportunities. Trends Ecol Evol 24(12):686–693Google Scholar
  167. Wilcove DS, Rothstein D, Dubow J, Phillips A, Loso E (1998) Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. Bioscience 48:607–615Google Scholar
  168. Yurkonis KA, Meiners SJ, Wachholder BE (2005) Invasion impacts diversity through altered community dynamics. J Ecol 93(6):1053–1061Google Scholar
  169. Zheng YL, Feng YL, Liu WX, Liao ZY (2009) Growth, biomass allocation, morphology, and photosynthesis of invasive Ageratina adenophora and its native congeners grown at four irradiances. Plant Ecol 203(2):263–271Google Scholar
  170. Zimmermann HG, Moran VC, Hoffmann JH (2000) The renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: its natural history and threat to native Opuntia in Mexico and the United States of America. Divers Distrib 6:259–269Google Scholar
  171. Ziska LH (2003) Evaluation of the growth response of six invasive species to past, present and future atmospheric carbon dioxide. J Exp Bot 54(381):395–404Google Scholar
  172. Zobel DB, Singh SP (1997) Forests of Himalaya: their contribution to ecological generalizations. Bioscience 47:735–745Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ravi Pathak
    • 1
  • Vikram S. Negi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ranbeer S. Rawal
    • 1
  • Indra D. Bhatt
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Biodiversity Conservation and Management, G.B. Pant, National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentAlmoraIndia

Personalised recommendations