Advertisement

Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 28, Issue 12, pp 3051–3071 | Cite as

How to hierarchise species to determine priorities for conservation action? A critical analysis

  • Maëlle Le BerreEmail author
  • Virgile Noble
  • Mathias Pires
  • Frédéric Médail
  • Katia Diadema
Review Paper
  • 281 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biodiversity protection and reserves

Abstract

Hierarchisation and prioritisation methods represent a crucial step to determine priorities and implement actions in conservation biology: they are required to determine how to allocate available resources to the different components of biodiversity. However, they are very heterogeneous in terms of targets and goals. The main differences are presented with a focus on hierarchisation methods targeting species. This paper reviews 40 studies using 24 different point-scoring or rule-based methods aiming to determine conservation concerns for species. Only the hierarchisation methods targeting species were compared and their differences where highlighted in terms of study area, taxa, criteria assessment and summarisation. Then six different studies using the same hierarchisation method for species were compared as well. This study enables to analyse the different existing methods in order to perform more relevant methodological choices adapted to the objective and the context of each selection process. A consistent framework is designed to help managers to choose an appropriate method using well-defined goals, study areas and taxonomic targets, and take into account data availability.

Keywords

Hierarchisation Prioritisation Methods Species conservation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (PACA) region, and the Direction Régionale de l’Environnement, de l’Aménagement et du Logement Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (DREAL PACA). The authors thank Benoît Strauss for English language improvement.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10531_2019_1820_MOESM1_ESM.docx (35 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 35 kb)

References

  1. Abbitt RJF, Scott JM, Wilcove DS (2000) The geography of vulnerability: incorporating species geography and human development patterns into conservation planning. Biol Conserv 96:169–175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00064-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andelman SJ, Groves C, Regan HM (2004) A review of protocols for selecting species at risk in the context of US Forest Service viability assessments. Acta Oecol 26:75–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2004.04.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armitage D, Berkes F, Dale A, Kocho-Schellenberg E, Patton E (2011) Co-management and the coproduction of knowledge: learning to adapt in Canada’s Arctic. Glob Environ Chang 21:995–1004.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.04.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avery M, Gibbons DW, Porter R, Tew TOM, Tucker G, Williams G (1995) Revising the British Red Data List for birds: the biological basis of UK conservation priorities. Ibis 137:232–239.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.1995.tb08450.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bacchetta G, Farris E, Pontecorvo C (2012a) A new method to set conservation priorities in biodiversity hotspots. Plant Biosyst 146:638–648.  https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2011.642417 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bacchetta G, Fenu G, Mattana E (2012b) A checklist of the exclusive vascular flora of Sardinia with priority rankings for conservation. An Jard Bot Madr 69:81–89.  https://doi.org/10.3989/ajbm.2289 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barazani O, Perevolotsky A, Hadas R (2008) A problem of the rich: prioritizing local plant genetic resources for ex situ conservation in Israel. Biol Conserv 141:596–600.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2007.10.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benavent-González A, Lumbreras A, Molina JA (2014) Plant communities as a tool for setting priorities in biodiversity conservation: a novel approach to Iberian aquatic vegetation. Biodivers Conserv 23:2135–2154.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-014-0709-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berg C, Abdank A, Isermann M, Jansen F, Timmermann T, Dengler J (2014) Red Lists and conservation prioritization of plant communities—a methodological framework. Appl Veg Sci 17:504–515.  https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berthon K, Esperon-Rodriguez M, Beaumont LJ, Carnegie AJ, Leishman MR (2018) Assessment and prioritisation of plant species at risk from myrtle rust (Austropuccinia psidii) under current and future climates in Australia. Biol Conserv 218:154–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.11.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beston JA, Diffendorfer JE, Loss SR, Johnson DH (2016) Prioritizing avian species for their risk of population-level consequences from wind energy development. PLoS ONE 11:e0150813.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150813 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonin A, Nicole F, Pompanon F, Miaud C, Taberlet P (2007) Population Adaptive Index: a new method to help measure intraspecific genetic diversity and prioritize populations for conservation. Conserv Biol 21:697–708.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00685.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bottrill MC, Joseph LN, Carwardine J, Bode M, Cook C, Game ET, Grantham H, Kark S, Linke S, McDonald-Madden E, Pressey RL, Walker S, Wilson KA, Possingham HP (2008) Is conservation triage just smart decision making? Trends Ecol Evol 23:649–654.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2008.07.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brehm JM, Maxted N, Martins-Loução MA, Ford-Lloyd BV (2010) New approaches for establishing conservation priorities for socio-economically important plant species. Biodivers Conserv 19:2715–2740.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9871-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Breininger DR, Barkaszi MJ, Smith RB, Oddy DM, Provancha JA (1998) Prioritizing wildlife taxa for biological diversity conservation at the local scale. Environ Manag 22:315–321.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002679900107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brooks TM, Mittermeier RA, da Fonseca GAB, Gerlach J, Hoffmann M, Lamoreux JF, Mittermeier CG, Pilgrim JD, Rodrigues ASL (2006) Global biodiversity conservation priorities. Science 313:58–61.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1127609 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Can ÖE, Macdonald DW (2018) Looking under the bonnet of conservation conflicts: can neuroscience help? Biodivers Conserv 27:2087–2091.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-018-1514-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carli E, Frondoni R, Pinna MS, Bacchetta G, Fenu G, Fois M, Marignani M, Puddu S, Blasi C (2018) Spatially assessing plant diversity for conservation: a Mediterranean case study. J Nat Conserv 41:35–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2017.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carter MF, Hunter WC, Pashley DN, Rosenberg KV (2000) Setting conservation priorities for landbirds in the United States: the partners in flight approach. The Auk 117:541–548.  https://doi.org/10.1642/0004-8038(2000)117%5b0541:SCPFLI%5d2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coates DJ, Atkins KA (2001) Priority setting and the conservation of Western Australia’s diverse and highly endemic flora. Biol Conserv 97:251–263.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00123-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crain BJ, Tremblay RL (2014) Do richness and rarity hotspots really matter for orchid conservation in light of anticipated habitat loss? Divers Distrib 20:652–662.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crain BJ, White JW (2011) Categorizing locally rare plant taxa for conservation status. Biodivers Conserv 20:451–463.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9929-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Curti RN, Sajama J, Ortega-Baes P (2017) Setting conservation priorities for Argentina’s pseudocereal crop wild relatives. Biol Conserv 209:349–355.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. da Silva NF, Hanazaki N, Albuquerque UP, Campos JLA, Feitosa IS, Araújo EDL (2019) Local knowledge and conservation priorities of medicinal plants near a protected area in Brazil. Evid 2019:8275084.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8275084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dhar U, Rawal RS, Upreti J (2000) Setting priorities for conservation of medicinal plants—a case study in the Indian Himalaya. Biol Conserv 95:57–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00010-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Donlan CJ, Wingfield DK, Crowder LB, Wilcox C (2010) Using expert opinion surveys to rank threats to endangered species: a case study with sea turtles. Conserv Biol 24:1586–1595.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01541.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Doxa A, Albert CH, Leriche A, Saatkamp A (2017) Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization. J Environ Manag 201:425–434.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.06.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunn EH, Hussell DJT, Welsh DA (1999) Priority-setting tool applied to Canada’s landbirds based on concern and responsibility for species. Conserv Biol 13:1404–1415.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98400.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fitzpatrick U, Murray ETE, Paxton RJ, Brown MJF (2007) Building on IUCN regional Red Lists to produce lists of species of conservation priority: a model with Irish bees. Conserv Biol 21:1324–1332.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00782.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Freitag S, van Jaarsveld AS (1997) Relative occupancy, endemism, taxonomic distinctiveness and vulnerability: prioritizing regional conservation actions. Biodivers Conserv 6:211–232.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018392019594 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gaiarsa MP, Alencar LRV, Valdujo PH, Tambosi LR, Martins M (2015) Setting conservation priorities within monophyletic groups: an integrative approach. J Nat Conserv 24:49–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2015.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Game ET, Kareiva P, Possingham HP (2013) Six common mistakes in conservation priority setting. Conserv Biol 27:480–485.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12051 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Gauthier P, Debussche M, Thompson JD (2010) Regional priority setting for rare species based on a method combining three criteria. Biol Conserv 143:1501–1509.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.03.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gauthier P, Foulon Y, Jupille O, Thompson JD (2013) Quantifying habitat vulnerability to assess species priorities for conservation management. Biol Conserv 158:321–325.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Given DR, Norton DA (1993) A multivariate approach to assessing threat and for priority setting in threatened species conservation. Biol Conserv 64:57–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(93)90383-C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harris JBC, Green JM, Prawiradilaga DM, Giam X, Hikmatullah D, Putra CA, Wilcove DS (2015) Using market data and expert opinion to identify overexploited species in the wild bird trade. Biol Conserv 187:51–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Henle K, Bauch B, Auliya M, Kulvik M, Pe’er G, Schmeller DS, Framstad E (2013) Priorities for biodiversity monitoring in Europe: a review of supranational policies and a novel scheme for integrative prioritization. Ecol Indic 33:5–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.03.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Isaac NJB, Turvey ST, Collen B, Waterman C, Baillie JEM (2007) Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS ONE 2:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Isaac NJB, Redding DW, Meredith HM, Safi K (2012) Phylogenetically-informed priorities for amphibian conservation. PLoS ONE 7:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043912 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. IUCN (2001) IUCN Red List categories and criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  41. IUCN (2012) IUCN Red List categories and criteria: Version 3.1. 2nd edn. IUCN, Gland and CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  42. IUCN/WCMC (1994) Guidelines for protected area management categories. IUCN, Gland and CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Jiménez-Alfaro J, Colubi A, González-Rodríguez G (2010) A comparison of point-scoring procedures for species prioritization and allocation of seed collection resources in a mountain region. Biodivers Conserv 19:3667–3684.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9921-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Joseph LN, Maloney RF, Possingham HP (2009) Optimal allocation of resources among threatened species: a project prioritization protocol. Conserv Biol 23:328–338.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01124.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kala CP, Farooquee NA, Dhar U (2004) Prioritization of medicinal plants on the basis of available knowledge, existing practices and use value status in Uttaranchal, India. Biodivers Conserv 13:453–469.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOC.0000006511.67354.7f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Karpouzoglou T, Dewulf A, Clark J (2016) Advancing adaptive governance of social-ecological systems through theoretical multiplicity. Environ Sci Policy 57:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.11.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Keller V, Bollmann K (2004) From Red Lists to species of conservation concern. Conserv Biol 18:1636–1644.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00464.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Knapp SM, Russell RE, Swihart RK (2003) Setting priorities for conservation: the influence of uncertainty on species rankings of Indiana mammals. Biol Conserv 111:223–234.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00278-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Knight AT, Cowling RM, Rouget M, Balmford A, Lombard AT, Campbell BM (2008) Knowing but not doing: selecting priority conservation areas and the research-implementation gap. Conserv Biol 22:610–617.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00914.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kricsfalusy VV, Trevisan N (2014) Prioritizing regionally rare plant species for conservation using herbarium data. Biodivers Conserv 23:39–61.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-013-0583-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lambeck RJ (1997) Focal species: a multi-species umbrella for nature conservation. Conserv Biol 11:849–856.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96319.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Le Berre M, Noble V, Pires M, Casazza G, Minuto L, Mariotti M, Abdulhak S, Fort N, Médail F, Diadema K (2018) Applying a hierarchisation method to a biodiversity hotspot: challenges and perspectives in the South-Western Alps flora. J Nat Conserv 42:19–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2018.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Leach M, Scoones I, Stirling A (2010) Dynamic sustainabilities. Earthscan, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lunney D, Curtin A, Ayers D, Cogger HG, Dickman CR (1996) An ecological approach to identifying the endangered fauna of New South Wales. Pac Conserv Biol 2:212–231.  https://doi.org/10.1071/PC960212 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mace GM, Possingham HP, Leader-Williams N (2007) Prioritizing choices in conservation. In: Macdonald DW, Service K (eds) Key topics in conservation biology. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, pp 17–34Google Scholar
  56. Maciel EA, Oliveira-Filho AT, Eisenlohr PV (2016) Prioritizing rare tree species of the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone: warnings and insights emerging from a comprehensive transitional zone of South America. Nat Conserv 14:74–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncon.2016.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mantyka-Pringle CS, Martin TG, Moffatt DB, Udy J, Olley J, Saxton N, Sheldon F, Bunn SE, Rhodes JR (2016) Prioritizing management actions for the conservation of freshwater biodiversity under changing climate and land-cover. Biol Conserv 197:80–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.02.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marage D, Garraud L, Rameau JC (2005) Une démarche pour la hiérarchisation des enjeux en matière de conservation et de gestion des habitats naturels: exemple d’évaluation patrimoniale de la végétation du bassin versant du Petit-Buëch (Hautes-Alpes). Rev ecol (Terre Vie) 60:193–209Google Scholar
  59. Margules CR, Pressey RL (2000) Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405:243–253.  https://doi.org/10.1038/35012251 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Marris E (2007) What to let go. Nature 450:152–155.  https://doi.org/10.1038/450152a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Marsh H, Dennis A, Hines H, Kutt A, McDonald K, Weber E, Williams S, Winter J (2007) Optimizing allocation of management resources for wildlife. Conserv Biol 21:387–399.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00589.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Martín JL (2009) Are the IUCN standard home-range thresholds for species a good indicator to prioritise conservation urgency in small islands? A case study in the Canary Islands (Spain). J Nat Conserv 17:87–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2008.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Martín JL, Cardoso P, Arechavaleta M, Borges PAV, Faria BF, Abreu C, Aguiar AF, Carvalho JA, Costa AC, Cunha RT, Fernandes FM, Gabriel R, Jardim R, Lobo C, Martins AMF, Oliveira P, Rodrigues P, Silva L, Teixeira D, Amorim IR, Homem N, Martins B, Martins M, Mendonça E (2010) Using taxonomically unbiased criteria to prioritize resource allocation for oceanic island species conservation. Biodivers Conserv 19:1659–1682.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9795-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Master LL (1991) Assessing threats and setting priorities for conservation. Conserv Biol 5:59–563.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.1991.tb00370.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McDermid J, Browne D, Chetkiewicz CL, Chu C (2015) Identifying a suite of surrogate freshwaterscape fish species: a case study of conservation prioritization in Ontario’s Far North, Canada. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 25:855–873.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2557 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mee JA, Bernatchez L, Reist JD, Rogers SM, Taylor EB (2015) Identifying designatable units for intraspecific conservation prioritization: a hierarchical approach applied to the lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus spp.). Evol Appl 8:423–441.  https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12247 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Miller RM, Rodriguez JP, Aniskowicz-Fowler T, Bambaradeniya C, Boles R, Eaton MA, Gardenfors U, Keller V, Molur S, Walfer S, Pollock C (2006) Extinction risk and conservation priorities. Science 313:441.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.313.5786.441a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Millsap BA, Gore JA, Runde DE, Cerulean SI (1990) Setting priorities for the conservation of fish and wildlife species in Florida. Wildl Monogr 111:1–57Google Scholar
  69. Mounce R, Rivers M, Sharrock S, Smith P, Brockington S (2017) Comparing and contrasting threat assessments of plant species at the global and sub-global level. Biodivers Conserv 27:907–930.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-017-1472-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858.  https://doi.org/10.1038/35002501 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nicholson E, Lindenmayer DB, Frank K, Possingham HP (2013) Testing the focal species approach to making conservation decisions for species persistence. Divers Distrib 19:530–540.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ottewell KM, Bickerton DC, Byrne M, Lowe AJ (2016) Bridging the gap: a genetic assessment framework for population-level threatened plant conservation prioritisation and decision-making. Divers Distrib 22:174–188.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12387 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pärtel M, Kaameles R, Reier U, Tuvi EL, Roosaluste E, Vellak A, Zobel M (2005) Grouping and prioritization of vascular plant species for conservation: combining natural rarity and management need. Biol Conserv 123:271–278.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.11.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Possingham HP, Andelman SJ, Burgman MA, Medellín RA, Master LL, Keith DA (2002) Limits to the use of threatened species lists. Trends Ecol Evol 17:503–507.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02614-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Potter KM, Crane BS, Hargrove WW (2017) A United States national prioritization framework for tree species vulnerability to climate change. New For 48:275–300.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-017-9569-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pouget M, Baumel A, Diadema K, Médail F (2016) Conservation unit allows assessing vulnerability and setting conservation priorities for a Mediterranean endemic plant within the context of extreme urbanization. Biodivers Conserv 26:293–307.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1242-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pullin AS, Sutherland W, Gardner T, Kapos V, Fa JE (2013) Conservation priorities: Identifying need, taking action and evaluating success. In: Macdonald DW, Willis KJ (eds) Key topics in conservation biology, vol 2. Wiley, Oxford, pp 3–22Google Scholar
  78. Redding DW, Mooers AØ (2006) Incorporating evolutionary measures into conservation prioritization. Conserv Biol 20:1670–1678.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00555.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Redding DW, DeWolff CV, Mooers AØ (2010) Evolutionary distinctiveness, threat status, and ecological oddity in primates. Conserv Biol 24:1052–1058.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01532.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Reece JS, Noss RF (2014) Prioritizing species by conservation value and vulnerability: a new index applied to species threatened by sea-level rise and other risks in Florida. Nat Areas J 34:31–45.  https://doi.org/10.3375/043.034.0105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Regan HM, Hierl LA, Franklin J, Deutschman DH, Schmalbach HL, Winchell CS, Johnson BS (2008) Species prioritization for monitoring and management in regional multiple species conservation plans. Divers Distrib 14:462–471.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2007.00447.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rodrigues ASL, Akçakaya HR, Andelman SJ, Bakarr MI, Boitani L, Brooks TM, Chanson JS, Fishpool LDC, da Fonseca GAB, Gaston KJ, Hoffmann M, Marquet PA, Pilgrim JD, Pressey RL, Schipper J, Sechrest W, Stuart SN, Underhill LG, Waller RW, Watts J, Yan X (2004) Global gap analysis: priority regions for expanding the global protected-area network. BioScience 54:1092–1100.  https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054%5b1092:GGAPRF%5d2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rodríguez JP, Rojas-Suárez F, Sharpe CJ (2004) Setting priorities for the conservation of Venezuela’s threatened birds. Oryx 38:373–382.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605304000730 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sapir Y, Shmida A, Fragman O (2003) Constructing Red Numbers for setting conservation priorities of endangered plant species: Israeli flora as a test case. J Nat Conserv 11:91–107.  https://doi.org/10.1078/1617-1381-00041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schatz B, Gauthier P, Debussche M, Thompson JD (2014) A decision tool for listing species for protection on different geographic scales and administrative levels. J Nat Conserv 22:75–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2013.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schmeller DS, Bauch B, Gruber B, Juskaitis R, Budrys E, Babij V, Lanno K, Sammul M, Varga Z, Henle K (2008a) Determination of conservation priorities in regions with multiple political jurisdictions. Biodivers Conserv 17:3623–3630.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-008-9446-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schmeller DS, Gruber B, Bauch B, Lanno K, Budrys E, Babij V, Juskaitis R, Sammul M, Varga Z, Henle K (2008b) Determination of national conservation responsibilities for species conservation in regions with multiple political jurisdictions. Biodivers Conserv 17:3607–3622.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-008-9439-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schmeller DS, Gruber D, Budrys E, Framsted E, Lengyel S, Henle K (2008c) National responsibilities in European species conservation: a methodological review. Conserv Biol 22:593–601.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00961.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Schmeller DS, Maier A, Evans D, Henle K (2012) National responsibilities for conserving habitats—a freely scalable method. Nat Conserv 3:21–44.  https://doi.org/10.3897/natureconservation.3.3710 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schmeller DS, Lin YP, Ding TS, Klenke R, Evans D, Henle K (2014) Determining responsibilities to prioritize conservation actions across scales. In: Henle K, Potts S, Kunin W, Matsinos Y, Simila J, Pantis J, Grobelnik V, Penev L, Settele J (eds) Scaling in ecology and biodiversity conservation. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, pp 97–99Google Scholar
  91. Schnittler M, Günther KF (1999) Central European vascular plants requiring priority conservation measures—an analysis from national Red Lists and distribution maps. Biodivers Conserv 8:891–925.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008828704456 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Still SM, Frances AL, Treher AC, Oliver L (2015) Using two climate change vulnerability assessment methods to prioritize and manage rare plants: a case study. Nat Areas J 35:106–121.  https://doi.org/10.3375/043.035.0115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stockes DL (2018) Why conserving species in the wild still matters. Biodivers Conserv 27:1539–1544.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-018-1509-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tali BA, Khuroo AA, Nawchoo IA, Ganie AH (2018) Prioritizing conservation of medicinal flora in the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot: an integrated ecological and socioeconomic approach. Environ Conserv.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0376892918000425 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. van Kerkhoff L (2013) Knowledge governance for sustainable development: a review. Chall Sustain 1:82–93.  https://doi.org/10.12924/cis2013.01020082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vereecken NJ (2017) A phylogenetic approach to conservation prioritization for Europe’s bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus). Biol Conserv 206:21–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Warren MS, Barnett LK, Gibbons DW, Avery MI (1997) Assessing national conservation priorities: an improved Red List of British butterflies. Biol Conserv 82:317–328.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(97)00037-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wilson KA, Underwood EC, Morrison SA, Klausmeyer KR, Murdoch WW, Reyers B, Wardell-Johnson G, Marquet PA, Rundel PW, McBride MF, Pressey RL, Bode M, Hoekstra JM, Andelman S, Looker M, Rondinini C, Kareiva P, Shaw MR, Possingham HP (2007) Conserving biodiversity efficiently: what to do, where, and when. PLoS Biol 5:1850–1861.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wilson KA, Carwardine J, Possingham HP (2009) Setting conservation priorities. Ann NY Acad Sci 1162:237–264.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04149.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Wyborn C, van Kerkhoff L, Dunlop M, Dudley N, Guevara O (2016) Future oriented conservation: knowledge governance, uncertainty and learning. Biodivers Conserv 25:1401–1408.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1130-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhang X, Gao X, Wang J, Cao W (2015) Extinction risk and conservation priority analyses for 64 endemic fishes in the Upper Yangtze River, China. Environ Biol Fish 98:261–272.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10641-014-0257-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Conservatoire Botanique National Méditerranéen de Porquerolles (CBNMed)HyèresFrance
  2. 2.Aix Marseille Univ, Avignon Univ, CNRS, IRD, IMBE. Technopôle de l’Arbois-MéditerranéeAix-en-Provence cedex 4France

Personalised recommendations