Rocky outcrops conserve genetic diversity and promote regeneration of a threatened relict tree in a critically endangered ecosystem

  • Gastón O. CarvalloEmail author
  • Beatriz Vergara-Meriño
  • Angie Díaz
  • Cristian A. Villagra
  • Pablo C. Guerrero
Original Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biodiversity protection and reserves


The loss of individuals in disturbed sites may be buffered by the presence of small natural features (SNFs), sites acting as ecological refuges preventing the loss of phenotypic variability and genetic diversity of plants. An important group of SNFs is rocky outcrops, singular geological formations that stand out from the surrounding matrix which could host a greater species diversity. We tested the value of rocky outcrops as SNFs of a Tertiary relict tree, the Chilean lucuma Pouteria splendens (Sapotaceae). We identified vegetation patches with P. splendens and characterized their landscape properties in sites associated with rocky outcrops and clearings (plains). Then, we contrasted the genetic diversity, phenotypic variability and sapling abundance of P. splendens inhabiting rocky outcrops and plains. We observed that rocky outcrops sustained subtle higher genetic diversity compared with plains, but non-significant genetic structuration was detected between habitat types. Independently of the habitat type, P. splendens have a significant role in the sapling recruitment: their number was higher underneath of conspecifics than in open spaces. Besides, plants in the rocky outcrops produced smaller and ovoid-shaped fruits, as a possible result of selective pressures generated by frugivorous. We propose that rocky outcrops are regeneration sites for P. splendens. However, subtle differences in genetic diversity between habitats and the lacking of genetic structuration suggest that conservation strategies should be focused on the protection of all habitat types as a manner of maintaining ecosystem processes in this singular vegetation remnant.


AFLP Hotspots Mediterranean-type ecosystem Refuge Small natural features Sapotaceae 



This study was funded by Fondo de Investigación del Bosque Nativo (CONAF 009/2015) and by Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico FONDECYT 1160583 (to PCG) and FONDECYT 11150301 (to GOC) Grants. We also thank A. Cadiz, D. Fernández, C. González, P. Henríquez, L. Marcó, C. Munso, B. Segura, C. Shapheer, I. Tamburrino and V. Vilches for assist with field or laboratory work.

Supplementary material

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Biología, Facultad de CienciasPontificia Universidad Católica de ValparaísoValparaísoChile
  2. 2.Departamento de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y OceanográficasUniversidad de ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  3. 3.Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y OceanográficasUniversidad de ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  4. 4.Instituto de EntomologíaUniversidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la EducaciónSantiagoChile

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