Advertisement

Strengthening the genetic diversity conservation narrative in Indonesia: challenges and prospects

  • Safendrri Komara RagamustariEmail author
  • Endang Sukara
Review Paper
  • 31 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biodiversity appreciation and engagement

Abstract

In possessing a significant proportion of the world’s biological diversity, Indonesia represents a fulcrum for global biological diversity conservation. However, despite being a member of global coalitions on biological diversity conservation efforts, due to the lack of a clear narrative, especially in regards to genetic diversity conservation, Indonesia is continuously losing its biological diversity. In this paper, we highlight the importance of genetic diversity and possible strategies for its conservation from an Indonesian perspective. We address the relationship between Indonesian national regulations/strategies for genetic diversity conservation with the most dominant international agreement on the topic, the Convention on Biological Diversity. A review of Indonesian national regulations and strategies highlight the importance of elaborating on the definition of “genetic diversity and resources” in the Indonesian conservation narrative to create improved strategies for genetic diversity conservation. Furthermore, the addition and optimization of genetic resource conservation facilities can also improve genetic diversity conservation in Indonesia. We also explore strategies connected to stimulating economic growth using Indonesian genetic diversity through metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and systems biology.

Keywords

Indonesia Biodiversity Genetic resources Convention on biological diversity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported in part by the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) from the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)/Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts on Biological Diversity (1989) UNEP report of the ad hoc working group on the work of its first session. United Nations Environment Program, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams WM, Aveling R, Brockington D, Dickson B, Elliott J, Hutton J, Rhoe D, Vira B, Wolmer W (2004) Biodiversity conservation and the eradication of poverty. Science 306(5699):1146–1149Google Scholar
  3. Aerni P, Gagalac F, Scholderer J (2016) The role of biotechnology in combating climate change: a question of politics? Sci Public Policy 43(1):13–28Google Scholar
  4. Alvarado-Quesada I, Weikard H-P (2017) International Environmental Agreements for biodiversity conservation: a game-theoretic analysis. Int Environ Agreem Polit Law Econ 17(5):731–754Google Scholar
  5. Balisacan AM, Pernia EM, Asra A (2003) Revisiting growth and poverty reduction in Indonesia: what do subnational data show? Bull Indones Econ Stud 39(3):329–351Google Scholar
  6. Beckerman W (1992) Economic growth and the environment: whose growth? whose environment? World Dev 20(4):481–496Google Scholar
  7. Boundy-Mills KL, Glantschnig E, Roberts IN, Yurkov A, Casaregola S, Daniel HM, Groenewald M, Turchetti B (2016) Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges. Yeast 33(7):243–260Google Scholar
  8. Breitling R, Takano E (2015) Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production. Curr Opin Biotechnol 35:46–51Google Scholar
  9. Carlsson B, Stankiewicz R (1991) On the nature, function and composition of technological systems. J Evolut Econ 1(2):93–118Google Scholar
  10. Carse A (2012) Nature as infrastructure: making and managing the Panama Canal watershed. Soc Stud Sci 42(4):539–563Google Scholar
  11. CBD (1992) Convention on biological diversity, the United Nations. Retrieved January 25, 2018 from https://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-en.pdf
  12. Clomburg JM, Gonzalez R (2010) Biofuel production in Escherichia coli: the role of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 86:419–434Google Scholar
  13. Corlett RT (2017) A bigger toolbox: biotechnology in biodiversity conservation. Trends Biotechnol 35(1):55–65Google Scholar
  14. Cumming TL, Shackleton RT, Förster J, Dini J, Khan A, Gumula M, Kubiszewski I (2017) Achieving the national development agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through investment in ecological infrastructure: a case study of South Africa. Ecosyst Serv 27:253–260Google Scholar
  15. Dai Z, Nielsen J (2015) Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms. Curr Opin Biotechnol 36:8–15Google Scholar
  16. Datta A, Mukherjee D, Jessup L (2015) Understanding commercialization of technological innovation: taking stock and moving forward. R&D Manag 45(3):215–249Google Scholar
  17. Edgar GJ, Stuart-Smith RD, Willis TJ, Kininmonth S, Baker SC, Banks S, Barrett NS, Becerro MA, Bernard AT, Berkhout J, Buxton CD, Thomson RJ (2014) Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features. Nature 506(7487):216–220Google Scholar
  18. Ellegren H, Galtier N (2016) Determinants of genetic diversity. Nat Rev Genet 17(7):422–433Google Scholar
  19. Etzkowitz H, Leydesdorff L (2000) The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and “Mode 2” to a Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations. Res Policy 29(2):109–123Google Scholar
  20. Francisco-Ortega J, Santos-Guerra A, Kim S-C, Crawford DJ (2000) Plant genetic diversity in the Canary Islands: a conservation perspective. Am J Bot 87(7):909–919Google Scholar
  21. Frank DJ (1999) The social bases of environmental treaty ratification, 1900–1990. Sociol Inquiry 69(4):523–550Google Scholar
  22. Frankham R (2010) Challenges and opportunities of genetic approaches to biological conservation. Biol Conserv 143:1919–1927Google Scholar
  23. Fredriksson PG, Neumayer E, Ujhelyi G (2007) Kyoto Protocol cooperation: does government corruption facilitate environmental lobbying? Public Choice 133(1–2):231–251Google Scholar
  24. Grossman GM, Krueger AB (1995) Economic growth and the environment. Q J Econ 110(2):353–377Google Scholar
  25. Heywood VH, Iriondo J (2003) Plant conservation: old problems, new perspectives. Biol Cons 113:321–335Google Scholar
  26. Hiemstra SJ, Martyniuk E, Duchev Z, Begemann F (2014) European Gene Bank network for animal genetic resources (EUGENA). In: Proceedings of the 10th WCGALP, (Mackay), p 10Google Scholar
  27. Hitchcock M (2007) PROSEA [Plant Resources of South-East Asia]: no. 17 Fibre Plants. Bot J Linn Soc 154(2):289Google Scholar
  28. Huang S (2016) New thoughts on an old riddle: what determines genetic diversity within and between species? Genomics 108(1):3–10Google Scholar
  29. Hughes AR, Inouye BD, Johnson MTJ, Underwood N, Vellend M (2008) Ecological consequences of genetic diversity. Ecol Lett 11:609–623Google Scholar
  30. Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture Research Center for Biotechnology and Agricultural Genetic Diversity Resources (2019) Bank Plasma Nutfah (Genetic Resource Bank). Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture Research Center for Biotechnology and Agricultural Genetic Diversity Resources Official Website. Retrieved March 13, 2019 from http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/bank-plasma-nutfah
  31. Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry, General Directorate for Natural Resources Conservation and Ecosystem. (2018). Statistik Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Tahun 2017. Sekretariate of General Directorate for Natural Resources Conservation and Ecosystem, Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  32. Indonesian Ministry of National Development Planning (2016) Indonesia Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2015–2020. Jakarta, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Indonesian Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education (2010) Indonesian Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education strategic plan year 2010–2014. Jakarta, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  34. Indonesian Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education (2014) Indonesian Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education strategic plan year 2015–2019. Jakarta, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Jarboe LR, Zhang X, Wang X, Moore JC, Shanmugam KT, Ingram LO (2010) Metabolic engineering for production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals: contributions of synthetic biology. J Biomed Biotechnol 2010:761042Google Scholar
  36. Jullesson D, David F, Pfleger B, Nielsen J (2015) Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals. Biotechnol Adv 33(7):1395–1402Google Scholar
  37. Kostaman T, Sopiyana S (2016) Development and conservation of gonadal primordial germ cells for preservation of local chicken in Indonesia. Indones Bull Anim Vet Sci 26(3):125–132Google Scholar
  38. Laikre L (2010) Genetic diversity is overlooked in international conservation policy implementation. Conserv Genet 11(2):349–354Google Scholar
  39. Lakitan B (2013) Connecting all the dots: identifying the “actor level” challenges in establishing effective innovation system in Indonesia. Technol Soc 35(1):41–54Google Scholar
  40. Lawrence MJ, Marshall DE, Davies R (1995) Genetics of genetic conservation. I.Sample size when collecting germplasm. Euphytica 14:89–99Google Scholar
  41. Lee JW, Na D, Park JM, Lee J, Choi S, Lee SY (2012) Systems metabolic engineering of microorganisms for natural and non-natural chemicals. Nat Chem Biol 8:536–546Google Scholar
  42. Leffler EM, Bullaughey K, Matute DR, Meyer WK, Ségurel L, Venkat A, Andolfatto P, Przeworski M (2012) Revisiting an old riddle: what determines genetic diversity levels within species? PLoS Biol 10(9):e1001388Google Scholar
  43. Leitch S, Motion J, Merlot E, Davenport S (2014) The fall of research and rise of innovation: changes in New Zealand science policy discourse. Sci Public Policy 41(1):119–130Google Scholar
  44. Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC (1995) Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  45. Lim D (2009) Biotechnology industry, statistics and policies in Korea. Asian Biotechnol Dev Rev 11(2):1–27Google Scholar
  46. Liu X, Zhang L, Hong S (2011) Global biodiversity research during 1900–2009: a bibliometric analysis. Biodivers Conserv 20(4):807–826Google Scholar
  47. Lombard AT (1995) The problems with multi-species conservation: do hotspots, ideal reserves and existing reserves coincide? S Afr J Zool 30(3):145–163Google Scholar
  48. Longhofer W, Schofer E, Miric N, Frank DJ (2016) NGOs, INGOs, and environmental policy reform, 1970–2010. Soc Forces 94(4):1743–1768Google Scholar
  49. Margono BA, Potapov PV, Turubanova S, Stolle F, Hansen MC (2014) Primary forest cover loss in Indonesia over 2000–2012. Nat Clim Change 4:730–735Google Scholar
  50. Margules CR, Pressey RL (2000) Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405:243–253Google Scholar
  51. Mather A, Hancox D, Riginos C (2015) Urban development explains reduced genetic diversity in a narrow range endemic freshwater fish. Conserv Genet 16(3):625–634Google Scholar
  52. Meyer SR, Cronan CS, Lilieholm RJ, Johnson ML, Foster DR (2014) Land conservation in northern New England: historic trends and alternative conservation futures. Biol Conserv 174:152–160Google Scholar
  53. Mittermeier RA, Goettsch Mittermeier C, Robles Gil P (1997) Megadiversity: earth’s biologically wealthiest nations. CEMEX, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  54. Mulyanto (2016) Productivity of R&D institution: the case of Indonesia. Technol Soc 44:78–91Google Scholar
  55. Nielsen J, Keasling JD (2011) Synergies between synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Nat Biotechnol 29(8):693–695Google Scholar
  56. Olivieri GL, Sousa V, Chikhi L, Radespiel U (2008) From genetic diversity and structure to conservation: genetic signature of recent population declines in three mouse lemur species (Microcebus spp.). Biol Conserv 141(5):1257–1271Google Scholar
  57. Payn KG, Dvorak WS, Janse BJ, Myburg AA (2008) Microsatellite diversity and genetic structure of the commercially important tropical tree species Eucalyptus urophylla, endemic to seven islands in eastern Indonesia. Tree Genet Genomes 4(3):519–530Google Scholar
  58. Pejchar L, Mooney HA (2017) Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends Ecol Evol 24(9):497–504Google Scholar
  59. Peplow M (2016) Synthetic biology’s first malaria drug meets market resistance. Nature 530(7591):389–390Google Scholar
  60. Piaggio AJ, Segelbacher G, Seddon PJ, Alphey L, Bennett EL, Carlson RH, Friedman RM, Kanavy D, Phelan R, Redford KH, Rosales M, Wheeler K (2017) Is it time for synthetic biodiversity conservation? Trends Ecol Evol 32(2):97–107Google Scholar
  61. Pimental D, Zuniga R, Morrison D (2005) Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecol Econ 52(3):273–288Google Scholar
  62. Plucknett DL, Smith NJ, Williams JT, Anishetty NM (1983) Crop germplasm conservation and developing countries. Science 220(4593):163–169Google Scholar
  63. Ragamustari SK, Nakatsubo T, Hattori T, Ono E, Kitamura Y, Suzuki S, Yamamura M, Umezawa T (2013) A novel O-methyltransferase involved in the first methylation step of yatein biosynthesis from matairesinol in Anthriscus sylvestris. Plant Biotechnol 30(4):375–384Google Scholar
  64. Redford KH, Adams W, Mace GM (2013) Synthetic biology and conservation of nature: wicked problems and wicked solutions. PLoS Biol 11(4):e1001530Google Scholar
  65. Republic of Indonesia House of Representatives, DPR-RI (2016) Draf Rancangan Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia tentang Konservasi Keanekaragaman Hayati dan Ekosistem (Draft of regulations on the conservation of biological diversity and the ecosystem). Pusat Perancangan Undang-Undang Badan Keahlian Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Republik Indonesia, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  66. Rodrigues ASL, Gaston KJ (2002) Maximising phylogenetic diversity in the selection of networks of conservation areas. Biol Conserv 105(1):103–111Google Scholar
  67. Romiguier J, Gayral P, Ballenghien M, Bernard A, Cahais V, Chenuil A, Chiari Y, Dernat R, Duret L, Faivre N, Loire E, Galtier N (2014) Comparative population genomics in animals uncovers the determinants of genetic diversity. Nature 515(7526):261–263Google Scholar
  68. Shafer AB, Wolf JB, Alves PC, Bergström L, Bruford MW, Brännström I, Colling G, Dalén L, De Meester L, Ekblom R, Fawcett KD, Zieliński P (2015) Genomics and the challenging translation into conservation practice. Trends Ecol Evol 30(2):78–87Google Scholar
  69. Silitonga TS, Risliawati A (2013) Pembentukan koleksi inti plasma nutfah padi. Buletin Plasma Nutfah 19(2):61–72Google Scholar
  70. Simberloff D, Martin JL, Genovesi P, Maris V, Wardle DA, Aronson J, Courchamp F, Galil B, García-Berthou E, Pascal M, Pyšek P, Vilà M (2013) Impacts of biological invasions: what’s what and the way forward. Trends Ecol Evol 28(1):58–66Google Scholar
  71. Singh D, McPhee D, Paddon CJ, Cherry J, Maurya G, Mahale G, Patel Y, Kumar N, Singh S, Sharma B, Kushwaha L, Kumar A (2017) Amalgamation of synthetic biology and chemistry for high-throughput nonconventional synthesis of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. Org Process Res Dev 21(4):551–558Google Scholar
  72. Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Brook BW, Ng PKL (2004) Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. Trends Ecol Evol 19(12):654–660Google Scholar
  73. Stern DI, Common MS, Barbier EB (1996) Economic growth and environmental degradation: the environmental Kuznets curve and sustainable development. World Dev 24(7):1151–1160Google Scholar
  74. Struhsaker TT, Struhsaker PJ, Siex KS (2005) Conserving Africa’s rain forests: problems in protected areas and possible solutions. Biol Cons 123(1):45–54Google Scholar
  75. Suryahadi A, Hadiwidjaja G, Sumarto S (2012) Economic growth and poverty reduction in Indonesia before and after the Asian financial crisis. Bull Indones Econ Stud 48(2):209–227Google Scholar
  76. Thomson MJ, Polato NR, Prasetiyono J, Trijatmiko KR, Silitonga TS, McCouch SR (2009) Genetic diversity of isolated populations of Indonesian landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) collected in East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo. Rice 2(1):80–92Google Scholar
  77. Tilman D, Fargione J, Wolff B, D’Antonio C, Dobson A, Howarth R, Schindler D, Schlesinger WH, Simberloff D, Swackhamer D (2001) Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292(5515):281–284Google Scholar
  78. Tittensor DP, Walpole M, Hill SLLL, Boyce DG, Britten GL, Burgess ND, Butchart SH, Leadley PW, Regan EC, Alkemade R, Baumung R, Ye Y (2014) A mid-term analysis of progress toward international biodiversity targets. Science 346(6206):241–244Google Scholar
  79. Tobón W, Urquiza-Haas T, Koleff P, Schröter M, Ortega-Álvarez R, Campo J, Lindig-Cisneros R, Sarukhán J, Bonn A (2017) Restoration planning to guide Aichi targets in a megadiverse country. Conserv Biol 31(5):1086–1097Google Scholar
  80. Tsujino R, Yumoto T, Kitamura S, Djamaluddin I, Darnaedi D (2016) History of forest loss and degradation in Indonesia. Land Use Policy 57:335–347Google Scholar
  81. Tsutsui ND, Suarez AV, Holway DA, Case TJ (2000) Reduced genetic variation and the success of an invasive species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97(11):5948–5953Google Scholar
  82. von Rintelen K, Arida E, Häuser C (2017) A review of biodiversity-related issues and challenges in megadiverse Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries. Res Ideas Outcomes 3:e20860Google Scholar
  83. Watanabe ME (2017) The Nagoya protocol: big steps, new problems. Bioscience 67(4):400Google Scholar
  84. Whitlock R, Hipperson H, Thompson DBA, Butlin RK, Burke T (2016) Consequences of in situ strategies for the conservation of plant genetic diversity. Biol Conserv 203:134–142Google Scholar
  85. Wield D, Hanlin R, Mittra J, Smith J (2013) Twenty-first century bioeconomy: global challenges of biological knowledge for health and agriculture. Sci Public Policy 40(1):17–24Google Scholar
  86. Worm B, Hilborn R, Baum JK, Branch TA, Collie JS, Costello C, Fogarty MJ, Fulton EA, Hutchings JA, Jennings S, Jensen OP, Zeller D (2009) Rebuilding global fisheries. Science 325(5940):578–585Google Scholar
  87. Wright BD (1997) Crop genetic resource policy: the role of ex situ genebanks. Aust J Agric Resour Econ 41(1):81–115Google Scholar
  88. Wu G, Yan Q, Jones JA, Tang YJ, Fong SS, Koffas MAG (2016) Metabolic burden: cornerstones in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications. Trends Biotechnol 34:652–664Google Scholar
  89. Yamagata Y, Yang J, Galaskiewicz J (2017) State power and diffusion processes in the ratification of global environmental treaties, 1981–2008. Int Environ Agreem Polit Law Econ 17(4):501–529Google Scholar
  90. Yusuf AA, Sumner A (2015) Growth, poverty, and inequality under Jokowi. Bull Indones Econ Stud 51(3):323–348Google Scholar
  91. Zavaleta ES, Hobbs RJ, Mooney HA (2001) Viewing invasive species removal in a whole-ecosystem context. Trends Ecol Evol 16(8):454–459Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute for Sustainable HumanosphereKyoto UniversityUjiJapan
  2. 2.Research Unit for Development of Global SustainabilityKyoto UniversityUjiJapan
  3. 3.School of Government and Public Policy IndonesiaSentul, BogorIndonesia
  4. 4.National UniversityPasar Minggu, South JakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations