Angling as a source of non-native freshwater fish: a European review
In a context of the growing concern about the impact of biological invasions, our objective is to review the role of those non-native species that have primarily been introduced for angling purposes in at least one European country. We are particularly interested in: (1) the relative role of sport fish species in the context of non-native species introductions; (2) assessing the relative importance of different fish taxa; (3) identifying similarity patterns in the composition of the angling fish species introduced throughout the continent, and (4) assessing the underlying factors that drive their diversity in Europe. According to our results, 23.6% of the freshwater fish introduced into Europe during the last century were released primarily for angling purposes. The species composition differed among countries, with a higher diversity of introduced angling species in larger countries and in those with a greater GDP per capita, along with a lower latitude. This review stresses that angling was a significant pathway for the introduction of invasive fish species into Europe in the last century. Furthermore, some of the introduced angling species had severe environmental impacts on many European regions. However, introductions of non-native angling species are still occurring. Therefore, existing EU regulations need better enforcement as well as to increase public awareness regarding invasive fish. This will help to preserve biodiversity and improve the sustainability of current angling schemes in increasingly managed European freshwater ecosystems. However, non-native fish could make angling sustainable, although not for biodiversity generally.
KeywordsAnglers Exotic species Freshwater fish introductions Introduced angling species (IANS) Invasion pathways Sport fishing
We are grateful to those databases that provided data for this review (i.e. DAISIE, FISHBASE and GISD). We would also like to thank S. Newton for her comments on the earlier drafts of the manuscript. AJC are supported by a “Juan de la Cierva” contract (FJCI-2017-33114) from MINECO-UCM. We thank Helmholtz Zentrum München for the Postdoctoral Fellowship Program PFPII.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Beierkuhnlein C (2007) Biogeographie. UTB Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
- Benejam L, Carol J, Benito J, García-Berthou E (2007) On the spread of the European catfish (Silurus glanis) in the Iberian Peninsula: first record in the Llobregat river basin. Limnetica 26:169–171Google Scholar
- Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Cowx IG (1998) Stocking and introduction of fish. Fishing News Books, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Doadrio I, Carmona JA (2006) Phylogenetic overview of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) in the Iberian Peninsula, with description of two new species. Cybium 30:199–214Google Scholar
- Esmaeili HR, Teimori A, Feridon OWFI, Abbasi K, Brian WC (2015) Alien and invasive freshwater fish species in Iran: diversity, environmental impacts and management. Iran J Ichthyol 1:61–72Google Scholar
- Freyhof J, Brooks E (2011) European red list of freshwater fishes. Publications office of the European Union, Luxembourg, p 61Google Scholar
- Helfman GS (2007) Fish conservation: a guide to understanding and restoring global aquatic biodiversity and fishery resources. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Hickley P (2018) Recreational fisheries—social, economic and management aspects. In: Hickley P, Tompkins H (eds) Recreational fishieres: social, economic and management aspects. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 137–157Google Scholar
- Kottelat M, Freyhof J (2007) Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat. Steven Simpson Books, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- Lowe S, Browne M, Boudjelas S, De Poorter M (2000) 100 of the World’s worst invasive alien species. A selection from the global invasive species. Invasive Species Specialist Group, Auckland, p 12Google Scholar
- Meinelt T, Jendrusch K, Arlinghaus R (2008) Competitive fishing in Germany: an overview. In: Aas Ø, Arlinghaus R, Ditton RB, Policansky D, Schramm HL Jr (eds) Global challenges in recreational fisheries. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, pp 254–258Google Scholar
- Monaco MA, Genovesi MP, Middleton A (2013) European code of conduct on hunting and IAS. In: Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats. 33rd meeting Strasbourg, 3–6 December 2013Google Scholar
- R Core Team (2018) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria; 2017. Retrieved from https://www.R-project.org/
- Roheim CA, Wessells CR (2001) Product certification and ecolabelling for fisheries sustainability (No. 422). Food and Agriculture Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Vitule JRS, Bornatowski H, Freire CA, Abilhoa V (2014) Extralimital introductions of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816) (Teleostei, Characidae) for sport fishing purposes: a growing challenge for the conservation of biodiversity in neotropical aquatic ecosystems. BioInvasions Rec 3:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Welcomme RL (1988) International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) Fisheries Technical paper 294Google Scholar