Advertisement

Do roads or streams explain plant invasions in forested protected areas?

  • Melissa K. Daniels
  • Gwenllian D. Iacona
  • Paul R. Armsworth
  • Eric R. LarsonEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Giving land managers the ability to predict invasion patterns can provide planning tools for acquisition and management of protected areas. We compared the effects of roads and streams, two substantial pathways for delivery of invasive plant propagules and sources of disturbance that may facilitate invasions, on the abundance of non-native invasive plants in 27 protected areas in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States. As an extension of our road analysis, we also evaluated specific road type as a predictor of protected area invadedness. We found that road and stream predictors did not improve on a model that included only other covariates (e.g., distance to an urban area, average canopy cover, average slope, edge-to-interior ratio, percent agricultural land, and percent developed land). In this model, only percent agricultural land was marginally significant in predicting parcel invadedness. However, we found that four-wheel drive (4WD) roads did predict protected area invadedness well relative to other road types (primary, secondary, and local) and better than a covariates-only model. The role of 4WD road density in predicting protected area invadedness may be explained by their relation to recreation, the unmaintained nature of 4WD roads, or the accumulation of mud and plant materials on 4WD vehicles. Although we found overall streams and roads in general to be poor predictors of invadedness of protected areas by invasive plants, we do propose that our finding of a relationship between plant invasions and density of 4WD roads merits further investigation in the future.

Keywords

Exotic plants Appalachian mountains The Nature Conservancy Microstegium vimineum Rosa multiflora 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This projected was supported by a Jonathan Baldwin Turner graduate fellowship to MKD, USDA McIntire-Stennis Project 1011952 to ERL, and National Science Foundation Grant 121142 to PRA. We are grateful to Amaryllis K. Adey, Christopher W. Evans, and Jeffrey W. Matthews for comments on early drafts that improved this manuscript, and Heather Bird Jackson for useful discussions on the dataset. Our manuscript was improved by comments from two anonymous reviewers. We also thank The Nature Conservancy for providing data and site access.

Supplementary material

10530_2019_2036_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 20 kb)

References

  1. Armsworth PR, Fishburn IS, Davies ZG, Gilbert J, Leaver N, Gaston KJ (2012) The size, concentration, and growth of biodiversity-conservation nonprofits. Bioscience 62:271–281.  https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.3.8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armsworth PR, Jackson HB, Cho S, Clark M, Fargione JE, Iacona GD, Kim T, Larson ER, Minney T, Sutton NA (2018) Is conservation right to go big? Protected area size and conservation return-on-investment. Biol Conserv 225:229–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aronson MFJ, Patel MV, O’Neill KM, Ehrenfeld JG (2017) Urban riparian systems function as corridors for both native and invasive plant species. Biol Invasions 19:3645–3657.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-017-1583-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Assaeed AM, Al-Rowaily SL, El-Bana MI, Abood AAA, Dar BAM, Hegazy AK (2018) Impact of off-road vehicles on soil and vegetation in a desert rangeland in Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Biol Sci  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.05.001 (in press) Google Scholar
  5. Barlow KM, Mortensen DA, Drohan PJ, Averill KM (2017) Unconventional gas development facilitates plant invasions. J Environ Manag 202:208–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barton K (2018) MuMIn: multi-model inference. R package version 1.40.4. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=MuMIn. Accessed 12 Feb 2018
  7. Brooks ML, D’Antonio CM, Richardson DM, Grace JB, Keeley JE, DiTomaso JM, Hobbs RJ, Pellant M, Pyke D (2004) Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. Bioscience 54:677–688.  https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054%5b0677:EOIAPO%5d2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown RL, Peet RK (2003) Diversity and invasibility of Southern Appalachian plant communities. Ecology 84:32–39.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084%5b0032:DAIOSA%5d2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodal inference. Springer, New York.  https://doi.org/10.1007/b97636 Google Scholar
  10. Cadenasso ML, Pickett STA (2001) Effect of edge structure on the flux of species into forest interiors. Conserv Biol 15:91–97.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2001.99309.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Castro AJ, Martín-Lopez B, Lopez E, Plieninger T, Alcaraz-Segura D, Vaughn CC, Cabello J (2015) Do protected areas networks ensure the supply of ecosystem services? Spatial patterns of two nature reserve systems in semi-arid Spain. Appl Geogr 60:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Christen DC, Matlack GR (2009) The habitat and conduit functions of roads in the spread of three invasive plant species. Biol Invasions 11:453–465.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-008-9262-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cole DN, Marion JL (1988) Recreation impacts in some riparian forests of the Eastern United States. Environ Manag 12:99–107.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01867381 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dark SJ (2004) The biogeography of invasive alien plants in California: an application of GIS and spatial regression analysis. Divers Distrib 10:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2004.00054.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DeFerrari CM, Naiman RJ (1994) A multi-scale assessment of the occurrence of exotic plants on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. J Veg Sci 5:247–258.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3236157 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dormann CF, Elith J, Bacher S, Buchmann C, Carl C, Carré G, García Marquéz JR, Gruber B, Lafourcade B, Leitão PJ, Münkemüller T, McClean C, Osborne PR, Reineking B, Schröder B, Skidmore AK, Zurell S, Lautenbach S (2012) Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography 26:27–46.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07348.x Google Scholar
  17. Eiswerth ME, Donaldson SG, Johnson WS (2000) Potential environmental impacts and economic damages of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in Western Nevada and Northeastern California. Weed Technol 14:511–518.  https://doi.org/10.1614/0890-037X(2000)014%5b0511:PEIAED%5d2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eschtruth AK, Battles JJ (2009) Assessing the relative importance of disturbance, herbivory, diversity, and propagule pressure in exotic plant invasion. Ecol Monogr 79:265–280.  https://doi.org/10.1890/08-0221.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Esri (2017) ArcGIS Version 10.5. Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Redlands, CAGoogle Scholar
  20. Fishburn IS, Boyer AG, Kareiva P, Gaston KJ, Armsworth PR (2013) Changing spatial patterns of conservation investment by a major land trust. Biol Conserv 161:223–229.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.02.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Flory SL, Clay K (2009) Effects of roads and forest successional age on experimental plant invasions. Biol Conserv 142:2531–2537.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.05.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forman RTT, Alexander LE (1998) Roads and their major ecological effects. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 29:207–231.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.29.1.207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gavier-Pizarro GI, Radeloff VC, Stewart SI, Huebner CD, Keuler NS (2010) Housing is positively associated with invasive exotic plant species richness in New England, USA. Ecol Appl 20:1913–1925.  https://doi.org/10.1890/09-2168.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gelbard JL, Belnap J (2003) Roads as conduits for exotic plant invasions in a semiarid landscape. Conserv Biol 17:420–432.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.01408.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Greenberg CH, Crownover SH, Gordon DR (1997) Roadside soils: a corridor for invasion of xeric shrub by nonindigenous plants. Nat Areas J 17:99–109Google Scholar
  26. Greene MT, Blossey B (2012) Lost in the weeds: Ligustrum sinense reduces native plant growth and survival. Biol Invasions 14:139–150.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-011-9990-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guo Q, Rejmánek M, Wen J (2012) Geographical, socioeconomic, and ecological determinants of exotic plant naturalization in the United States: insights and updates from improved data. NeoBiota 12:41–55.  https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.12.2419 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hawbaker TJ, Radeloff VC (2004) Roads and landscape pattern in Northern Wisconsin based on a comparison of four road data sources. Conserv Biol 18:1233–1244.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-011-9990-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Homer CG, Dewitz JA, Yang L, Jin S, Danielson P, Xian G, Coulston J, Herold ND, Wickham JD, Megown K (2015) Completion of the 2011 National Land Cover Database for the conterminous United States-Representing a decade of land cover change information. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 81:345–354Google Scholar
  30. Hood WG, Naiman RJ (2000) Vulnerability of riparian zones to invasion by exotic vascular plants. Plant Ecol 148:105–114.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009800327334 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hutchinson TF, Vankat JL (1997) Invasibility and effects of amur honeysuckle in Southwestern Ohio forests. Conserv Biol 11:1117–1124.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96001.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Iacona GD, Price FD, Armsworth PR (2014) Predicting the invadedness of protected areas. Divers Distrib 20:430–439.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12171 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Iacona GD, Price FD, Armsworth PR (2016) Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas. J Environ Manag 166:537–543.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.10.052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Iannone BV, Potter KM, Guo Q, Liebhold AM, Pijanowski BC, Oswalt CM, Fei S (2016) Biological invasion hotspots: a trait-based perspective reveals new sub-continental patterns. Ecography 39:961–969.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.01973 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Joly M, Bertrand P, Gbangou RY, White M, Dubé J, Lavoie C (2011) Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Environ Manag 48:514–522.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9711-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Keller RP, Frang K, Lodge DM (2007) Preventing the spread of invasive species: economic benefits of intervention guided by ecological predictions. Conserv Biol 22:80–88.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00811.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kohlhepp PF, Sanders TG, Tackett CC, Walters RW (1995) Roadside vegetation management. Colorado Department of Transportation. https://www.codot.gov/programs/research/pdfs/1996/roadsidevegetation.pdf. Accessed 13 Oct 2018
  38. Kuebbing SE, Simberloff D (2015) Missing the bandwagon: nonnative species impacts still concern managers. NeoBiota 25:73–86.  https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.25.8921 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kuhman TR, Pearson SM, Turner MG (2010) Effects of land-use history and the contemporary landscape on non-native plant invasion at local and regional scales in the forest-dominated southern Appalachians. Landsc Ecol 25:1433–1445.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-010-9500-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lemke D, Hulme PE, Brown JA, Tadesse W (2011) Distribution modelling of Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) invasion in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountain Region, USA. For Ecol Manag 262:139–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.03.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. León Cordero R, Torchelsen FP, Overbeck GE, Anand M (2016) Analyzing the landscape characteristics promoting the establishment and spread of gorse (Ulex europaeus) along roadsides. Ecosphere 7:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lockwood JL, Cassey P, Blackburn T (2005) The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 20:223–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2005.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lodge DM, Simonin PW, Burgiel SW, Keller RP, Bossenbroek JM, Jerde CL, Kramer AM, Rutherford ES, Barnes MA, Wittmann ME, Chadderton WL, Apriesnig JL, Beletsky D, Cooke RM, Drake JM, Egan SP, Finnoff DC, Gantz CA, Grey RK, Hoff MH, Howeth JG, Jensen RA, Larson ER, Mandrak NE, Mason DM, Martinez FA, Newcomb TJ, Rothlisberger JD, Tucker AJ, Warziniack TW, Zhang H (2016) Risk analysis and bioeconomics of invasive species to inform policy and management. Annu Rev Environ Resour 41:453–488.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-110615-085532 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lonsdale WM, Lane AM (1994) Tourist vehicles as vectors of weed seeds in Kakadu National Park, Northern Australia. Biol Conserv 69:277–283.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(94)90427-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 10:689–710.  https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010%5b0689:BICEGC%5d2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miller NP, Matlack GR (2010) Population expansion in an invasive grass, Microstegium vimineum: a test of the channelled diffusion model. Divers Distrib 16:816–826.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00690.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mortensen DA, Rauschert ESJ, Nord AN, Jones BP (2009) Forest roads facilitate the spread of invasive plants. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 2:191–199.  https://doi.org/10.1614/IPSM-08-125.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Moustakas A, Voutsela A, Katsanevakis S (2018) Sampling alien species inside and outside protected areas: does it matter? Sci Total Environ 625:194–198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.198 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nilsson C, Brown RL, Jansson R, Merritt DM (2010) The role of hydrochory in structuring riparian and wetland vegetation. Biol Rev 85:837–858.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2010.00129.x Google Scholar
  50. Oswalt SN, Smith WB (2014) U.S. Forest Resource Facts and Historical Trends (Report No. FS-1035). Washington, D.C: U.S. Forest Service. https://www.fia.fs.fed.us/library/brochures/docs/2012/ForestFacts_1952-2012_English.pdf. Accessed Dec 2018
  51. Oswalt CM, Fei S, Guo W, Iannone BV III, Oswalt SN, Pijanowski BC, Potter KM (2015) A subcontinental view of forest plant invasions. NeoBiota 24:49–54.  https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.24.4526 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Paradis E, Claude J, Strimmer K (2004) APE: analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R language. Bioinformatics 20:289–290.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btg412 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Parendes LA, Jones JA (2000) Role of light availability and dispersal in exotic plant invasion along roads and streams in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Conserv Biol 14:64–75.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.99089.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pejchar L, Mooney HA (2009) Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends Ecol Evol 24:497–504.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2009.03.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pickering CM, Hill W, Newsome D, Leung Y (2010) Comparing hiking, mountain biking and horse riding impacts on vegetation and soils in Australia and the United States of America. J Environ Manag 91:551–562.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.09.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rauschert ESJ, Mortensen DA, Bloser SM (2017) Human-mediated dispersal via rural road maintenance can move invasive propagules. Biol Invasions 19:2047–2058.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-017-1416-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rew LJ, Brummer TJ, Pollnac FW, Larson CD, Taylor KT, Taper ML, Fleming JD, Balbach HE (2018) Hitching a ride: seed accrual rates on different types of vehicles. J Environ Manag 206:547–555.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.10.060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Richardson DM, Holmes PM, Esler KJ, Galatowitsch SM, Stromberg JC, Kirkman SP, Pyšek P, Hobbs RJ (2007) Riparian vegetation: degradation, alien plant invasions, and restoration prospects. Divers Distrib 13:126–139.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1366-9516.2006.00314.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Riitters K, Potter K, Iannone BV III, Oswalt C, Fei S, Guo Q (2017) Landscape correlates of forest plant invasions: a high-resolution analysis across the eastern United States. Divers Distrib 24:274–284.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12680 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rodrigues ASL, Akçakaya HR, Andelman SJ, Bakarr MI, Boitani L, Brooks TM, Chanson JS, Fishpool LDC, Da Fonseca GAB, Gaston KJ, Hoffmann M, Marquet PA, Pilgrim JD, Pressey RL, Schipper J, Sechrest W, Stuart SN, Underhill LG, Waller RW, Watts MEJ, Yan X (2004) Global gap analysis: priority regions for expanding the global protected-area network. Bioscience 54:1092–1100.  https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054%5b1092:GGAPRF%5d2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rothlisberger JD, Chadderton WL, McNulty J, Lodge DM (2010) Aquatic invasive species transport via trailered boats: what is being moved, who is moving it, and what can be done. Fisheries 35:121–132.  https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8446-35.3.121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. R Core Team (2017) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed Sept 2017
  63. Seebens H, Blackburn TM, Dyer EE, Genovesi P, Hulme PE, Jeschke JM, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger G, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A, Moser D, Nishino M, Pearman D, Pergl J, Rabitsch W, Rojas-Sandoval J, Roques A, Rorke S, Rossinelli S, Roy HE, Scalera R, Schindler S, Štajerová K, Tokarska-Guzik B, van Kleunen M, Walker K, Weigelt P, Yamanaka T, Essl F (2017) No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nat Commun 8:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14435 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Simberloff D (2009) The role of propagule pressure in biological invasions. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 40:81–102.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.110308.120304 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Simberloff D, Martin J, Genovesi P, Maris V, Wardle DA, Aronson J, Courchamp F, Galil B, García-Berthou E, Pascal M, Pyšek P, Sousa R, Tabacchi R, Vilà M (2013) Impacts of biological invasions: what’s what and the way forward. Trends Ecol Evol 28:58–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.07.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Skultety D, Matthews JW (2017) Urbanization and roads drive non-native plant invasion in the Chicago Metropolitan region. Biol Invasions 19:2553–2566.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-017-1464-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Soares-Filho B, Moutinho P, Nepstad D, Anderson A, Rodrigues H, Garcia R, Dietzsch L, Merry F, Bowman M, Hissa L, Silvestrini R, Maretti C (2010) Role of Brazilian Amazon protected areas in climate change mitigation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:10821–10826.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0913048107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Taylor K, Brummer T, Taper ML, Wing A, Rew LJ (2012) Human-mediated long-distance dispersal: an empirical evaluation of seed dispersal by vehicles. Divers Distrib 18:942–951.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2012.00926.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thébaud C, Debussche M (1991) Rapid invasion of Fraxinus ornus L. along the Hérault River system in Southern France: the importance of seed dispersal by water. J Biogeogr 18:7–12.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2845240 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Trombulak SC, Frissell CA (2000) Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conserv Biol 14:18–30.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.99084.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. U.S. Census Bureau (2016a) Roads National Geodatabase. Suitland, Maryland, U.S. https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/tiger-geodatabases.html. Accessed Nov 2017
  72. U.S. Census Bureau (2016b) Cartographic Boundary Shapefiles—Urban Areas. Suitland, Maryland, U.S. https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/cbf/cbf_ua.html. Accessed Nov 2017
  73. U.S. Census Bureau (2016c) MTFCC Codes for 2016 and earlier TIGER Products. Suitland, Maryland, U.S. https://www.census.gov/geo/reference/mtfcc.html. Accessed Nov 2017
  74. U.S. Geological Survey (2005) National Hydrography Dataset Plus V2. Reston, Virginia, U.S. https://www.usgs.gov/core-science-systems/ngp/national-hydrography. Accessed Nov 2017
  75. U.S. Geological Survey (2017) National Elevation Dataset. Reston, Virginia, U.S. https://lta.cr.usgs.gov/NED. Accessed Nov 2017
  76. Veldman JW, Putz FE (2010) Long-distance dispersal of invasive grasses by logging vehicles in a tropical dry forest. Biotropica 42:697–703.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2010.00647.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. von der Lippe M, Kowarik I (2007) Long-distance dispersal of plants by vehicles as a driver of plant invasions. Conserv Biol 21:986–996.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00722.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Von Holle B, Motzkin G (2007) Historical land use and environmental determinants of nonnative plant distribution in coastal southern New England. Biol Conserv 136:33–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.10.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Von Holle B, Simberloff D (2005) Ecological resistance to biological invasion overwhelmed by propagule pressure. Ecology 86:3212–3218.  https://doi.org/10.1890/05-0427 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Watkins RZ, Chen J, Pickens J, Brosofske KD (2003) Effects of forest roads on understory plants in a managed hardwood landscape. Conserv Biol 17:411–419.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.01285.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Williams WH, Henderson K (2002) Tree and brush control for county road right-of-way. Iowa Department of Transportation. https://www.tallgrassprairiecenter.org/sites/default/files/Tech_Manual/roadside_brush_control_manual.pdf. Accessed 13 Oct 2018
  82. Yates ED, Levia DF Jr, Williams CL (2004) Recruitment of three non-native invasive plants into a fragmented forest in southern Illinois. For Ecol Manag 190:119–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2003.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zwaenepoel A, Roovers P, Hermy M (2006) Motor vehicles as vectors of plant species from road verges in a suburban environment. Basic Appl Ecol 6:83–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2005.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa K. Daniels
    • 1
  • Gwenllian D. Iacona
    • 2
  • Paul R. Armsworth
    • 3
  • Eric R. Larson
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Natural Resources and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Center for Biodiversity OutcomesArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations