Propagule supply and habitat suitability strongly influence the success of invasive alien plants. Thus, an invaded area is likely to have an adequate propagule supply, a suitable habitat, or both for species persistence. Based on this idea, we classified invaded areas into four categories as follows but with establishment still occurring in some cases: Class 1, adequate propagule supply and habitat suitability; Class 2, adequate propagule supply but limited habitat suitability; Class 3, limited propagule supply and adequate habitat suitability; and Class 4, mid- to low-level propagule supply and habitat suitability. We propose a framework for the classification of invaded areas into these four classes and present a case study in which this framework was applied. Classifying target areas in this manner could facilitate more efficient and practical management planning, thereby saving time and resources. We selected the alien shrub Leucaena leucocephala L. (Fabaceae) as a model species, which has invaded the Nakodo-jima Island in the Ogasawara Archipelago of Japan. We developed a species distribution model by incorporating proxy variables for propagule supply and habitat suitability as well as submodels for propagule supply or habitat suitability. Using these submodels, we estimated the levels of propagule supply and habitat suitability in each, and classified the current distribution range appropriately. Using these classifications, land managers could set priorities to concentrate their efforts to efficiently control target species.
Ecosystem management Habitat suitability Leucaena leucocephalaPropagule pressure Resource allocation Species distribution model
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
We thank Dr. A. Mizuguchi for several useful discussions for this study. Two anonymous reviewers provided us the constructive suggestions. This study was supported partly by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 16H01794.
Davies K, Sheley R (2007) A conceptual framework for preventing the spatial dispersal of invasive plants. Weed Sci 55:178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foxcroft L, Richardson D, Rouget M (2009) Patterns of alien plant distribution at multiple spatial scales in a large national park: implications for ecology, management and monitoring. Divers Distrib 15:367–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greiner M (1995) Two-graph receiver operating characteristic (TG-ROC): a Microsoft-EXCEL template for the selection of cut-off values in diagnostic tests. J Immunol Methods 185:145–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grevstad FS (2005) Simulating control strategies for a spatially structured weed invasion: Spartina alterniflora (Loisel) in Pacific Coast estuaries. Biol Invasions 7:665–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grice A, Clarkson J, Calvert M (2011) Geographic differentiation of management objectives for invasive species: a case study of Hymenachne amplexicaulis in Australia. Environ Sci Policy 14:986–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gupta B, Huang B (2014) Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants: physiological, biochemical, and molecular characterization. Int J Genomics Article IDGoogle Scholar
Hata K, Osawa T, Hiradate S, Kachi N (2018) Soil erosion alters soil chemical properties and limits grassland plant establishment on an oceanic island even after goat eradication. Restor Ecol 1:2. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.12854Google Scholar
Hiebert RD (1997) Prioritizing invasive plants and planning for management. In: Luken JO, Thieret JW (eds) Assessment and management of plant invasions. Series on environmental management. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-1926-2_15
Humston R, Mortensen D (2005) Anthropogenic forcing on the spatial dynamics of an agricultural weed: the case of the common sunflower. J Appl Ecol 42:863–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simberloff D, Rejmánek M (2011) Encyclopedia of biological invasions. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
Swets J (1988) Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science (80-) 240:1285–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Wilgen BW, Forsyth GG, Le Maitre DC et al (2012) An assessment of the effectiveness of a large, national-scale invasive alien plant control strategy in South Africa. Biol Conserv 148:28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vilà M, Basnou C, Pyšek P, Josefsson M (2010) How well do we understand the impacts of alien species on ecosystem services? A pan-European, cross-taxa assessment. Front Ecol Environ 8:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu W, Zeng N, Wang N (2010) Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, associated confidence interval and ROC analysis with practical SAS implementations. NESUG Proc HealGoogle Scholar