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An evaluation of the current extent and potential spread of Black Bass invasions in South Africa

  • Dumisani KhosaEmail author
  • Sean M. Marr
  • Ryan J. Wasserman
  • Tsungai A. Zengeya
  • Olaf L. F. Weyl
Original Paper

Abstract

Black Bass, a collective name for members of the centrarchid genus Micropterus, are native to North America, but have been introduced globally to enhance recreational angling. This study assessed the distribution of Micropterus salmoides, M. dolomieu and M. punctulatus in South Africa using both formal (survey-based) and informal (tournament data and social media) information sources. Analysis of the distribution data showed habitat bias between the data sources. Survey data from formal information sources were dominated by locality records in riverine environments while those derived from informal information sources focused more on lacustrine habitats. Presence data were used to develop niche models to identify suitable areas for their establishment. The predicted distribution range of M. salmoides revealed a broad suitability over most of South Africa, however, the Cape Fold Ecoregion and all coastal regions were most suitable for the establishment for both M. dolomieu and M. punctulatus. Flow accumulation and precipitation of coldest quarter were the most important environmental variables associated with the presence of all Black Bass species in South Africa. In addition, anthropogenic disturbance such as agricultural activities were associated with the presence of both Smallmouth Bass and Spotted Bass. An extensive area-based invasion debt was observed for all Micropterus spp. The potential for further spread of Black Bass in South Africa is of ecological concern because of their impact on native biota.

Keywords

Micropterus Aquatic invasive species Invasion debt Fish distribution databases 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge use of infrastructure and equipment provided by the NRF-SAIAB Research Platforms and the funding channelled through the NRF-SAIAB Institutional Support system. This study was partially funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF)—South African Research Chairs Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) (Inland Fisheries and Freshwater Ecology, Grant No. 110507), the NRF incentive funding for rated researchers (Grant Nos. 103602, 109015) and the DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology (CIB). DK and SMM thank the DST-NRF Professional Development Programme for support (Grant Nos. 88746, 101039). We are grateful to CapeNature, Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife, Mpumalanga Parks and Tourism Agency, NRF-SAIAB Collections Platform and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF; http://www.gbif.org) for distribution data. Some of the informal distribution data early in the study were compiled by JM Gravenor. The comments of two anonymous reviewers added considerably to the quality of the final manuscript. Any opinion, finding and conclusion or recommendation expressed in this material is that of the authors and the NRF do not accept any liability in this regard.

Supplementary material

10530_2019_1930_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (54 kb)
Supplementary Table I Distribution records of Black Bass species in different water management areas of South Africa based on the occurrence records obtain from both formal and informal information sources used for this study (XLSX 54 kb)
10530_2019_1930_MOESM2_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary Table II Pearson correlation network of the environmental variables used for the development of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides maxent model. Bio 3 = isothermality, Bio 8 = mean temperature of wettest quarter, Bio 12 = annual precipitation, Bio 14 = precipitation of driest month, Bio 15 = precipitation seasonality, Bio 18 = precipitation of warmest quarter and Bio 19 = precipitation of coldest quarter (DOCX 18 kb)
10530_2019_1930_MOESM3_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary Table III Pearson correlation network of the environmental variables used for the development of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu maxent model. Bio 3 = isothermality, Bio 8 = mean temperature of wettest quarter, Bio 10 = mean temperature of warmest quarter, Bio 15 = precipitation seasonality, Bio 18 = precipitation of warmest quarter and Bio 19 = precipitation of coldest quarter (DOCX 18 kb)
10530_2019_1930_MOESM4_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplementary Table IV Pearson correlation network of the environmental variables used for the development of Spotted Bass Micropterus punctulatus maxent model. Bio 1 = annual mean temperature, Bio 4 = temperature seasonality, Bio 7 = temperature annual range, Bio 9 = mean temperature of driest quarter, Bio 14 = precipitation of driest month Bio 18 = precipitation of warmest quarter and Bio 19 = precipitation of coldest quarter (DOCX 16 kb)
10530_2019_1930_MOESM5_ESM.tif (873 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 Water management areas of South Africa: A–Limpopo, B–Olifants North, C–Vaal, D–Orange, E–Olifants West, F–Buffels, G–Berg, H–Breede, J–Gouritz, K–Krom, L–Gamtoos, M–Swartkops, N–Sundays, P–Bushmans, Q–Great Fish, R–Keiskamma, S–Kei, T–Mzimvubu, U–Mkomazi, V–Tugela, W–Mfolozi and X–Komati (TIFF 873 kb)
10530_2019_1930_MOESM6_ESM.tif (118 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 2 Species response curves generated by MAXENT for Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides. Seven Bioclim, topographic and hydrological data (elevation, slope, topographic index and flow accumulation) and anthropogenic disturbance data (agricultural land and human population density) used to project distributions. Bio 3 = Isothermality, Bio 8 = mean temperature of wettest quarter, Bio 12 = annual precipitation, Bio 14 = precipitation of driest month, Bio 15 = precipitation seasonality, Bio 18 = precipitation of warmest quarter, Bio 19 = precipitation of coldest quarter (TIFF 117 kb)
10530_2019_1930_MOESM7_ESM.tif (143 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 3 Species response curves generated by MAXENT for Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu. Six Bioclim, topographic and hydrological data (elevation, slope, topographic index and flow accumulation) and anthropogenic disturbance data (agricultural land and human population density) used to project distributions. Bio3 = Isothermality, Bio 8 = mean temperature of wettest quarter, Bio 10 = mean temperature of warmest quarter, Bio 15 = precipitation seasonality, Bio 18 = precipitation of warmest quarter and Bio 19 = precipitation of coldest quarter (TIFF 142 kb)
10530_2019_1930_MOESM8_ESM.tif (142 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 4 Species response curves generated by MAXENT for Spotted Bass Micropterus punctulatus. Seven Bioclim, topographic and hydrological data (elevation, slope, topographic index and flow accumulation) and anthropogenic disturbance data (agricultural land and human population density) used to project distributions. Bio 1 = annual mean temperature, Bio 4 = temperature seasonality, Bio 7 = temperature annual range, Bio 9 = mean temperature of driest quarter, Bio 14 = precipitation of driest month, Bio 18 = precipitation of warmest quarter, Bio 19 = precipitation of coldest quarter (TIFF 142 kb)
10530_2019_1930_MOESM9_ESM.tif (1.6 mb)
Supplementary material 9 (TIFF 1665 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries ScienceRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  2. 2.DST/NRF Research Chair in Inland Fisheries and Freshwater EcologySouth African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB)GrahamstownSouth Africa
  3. 3.Centre for Invasion BiologySAIABGrahamstownSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of Biological Sciences and BiotechnologyBotswana International University of Science and TechnologyPalapyeBotswana
  5. 5.South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB)GrahamstownSouth Africa
  6. 6.Centre for Invasion Biology, Kirstenbosch Research CentreSouth African National Biodiversity InstituteClaremontSouth Africa
  7. 7.Department of Zoology and EntomologyUniversity of PretoriaHatfield, PretoriaSouth Africa

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