Ground crab spiders (Thomisidae: Xysticus) more abundant in grasslands invaded by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae)

  • Lauren J. SmithEmail author
  • Lauren A. Smith DiCarlo
  • Sandra J. DeBano
Invasion Note


Effectively managing invaded grasslands requires a comprehensive understanding of effects of the invader on key species in those ecosystems. Annual grasses, such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae), are significant invaders of grasslands in the western United States and their presence has been found to influence vegetation and vertebrate wildlife. However, little is known about how annual grass invasions affect invertebrates, including spiders, which provide significant ecosystem services. This study examined the response of an important grassland predator, ground crab spiders (Thomisidae: Xysticus), to annual grass invasion in semi-arid grasslands of eastern Oregon. Crab spiders are ambush predators, and Xysticus is a ground-dwelling genus that forages primarily in litter. Spiders were sampled using pitfall traps and cover of invasive annual grasses and litter was surveyed for three years (2014–2016). Results revealed that abundance of ground crab spiders was positively associated with increased cover of invasive annual grasses and litter. A positive relationship between invasive annual grass and litter cover suggests that cheatgrass and medusahead contribute significantly to litter, which may result in the higher observed Xysticus abundance. Increased litter may provide these spiders with more prey, refugia, and foraging habitat or modulate extreme temperature and moisture conditions in this arid grassland.


Annual grass invasion Araneae Bunchgrass prairie Detritus Litter 



We thank Leslie Nelson at The Nature Conservancy Boardman Grasslands Preserve and interns from Oregon State University that helped in the field and laboratory, including SR Roof, EM Campbell, KL Kirby, L McDaniel, LK Waianuhea, and BE Price. This work was supported by the Oregon State University Branch Experiment Station Internship Program, a USDA Western Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Graduate Student Grant (#GW16-016), The Nature Conservancy Oren Pollak Memorial Student Research Grant for Grassland Science, The Soil and Water Conservation Society Kenneth E. Grant Research Scholarship, The Prairie Biotic Small Research Grants Program, The Society for Ecological Restoration Northwest Chapter Student Research Grant, and a grant from the Oregon State University General Research Fund. The comments and suggestions of two anonymous reviewers greatly improved this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fisheries and WildlifeOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Science DepartmentWestfield State UniversityWestfieldUSA
  3. 3.Department of Fisheries and WildlifeHermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Oregon State UniversityHermistonUSA

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