Present and future invasion perspectives of an alien shrimp in South Atlantic coastal waters: an experimental assessment of functional biomarkers and thermal tolerance
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Climate change, particularly ocean warming, is thought to benefit the spread of invasive species due to their increased tolerance to temperature fluctuations as compared to native species. The physiological tolerance of invasive species as a potential mechanism driving invasion success is therefore a subject that merits further study. Specifically, we need to adequately evaluate the potential of species invasions under changing environmental conditions, so that adequate preventive measures can be taken to minimize any impacts on coastal ecosystems. Here, we experimentally evaluated the physiological responses of a recent invader in the Southern Atlantic, the shrimp Lysmata lipkei, under a warming ocean scenario. Adult shrimps were collected from rocky shores in southeastern Brazil and subjected to experimental trials under a control and a + 3 °C scenario. Molecular biomarkers (in gills and muscle), upper thermal limits, acclimation response ratios, thermal safety margins, mortality rates, estimates of body condition and energy reserves were measured over 1 month. Results suggest that higher temperatures elicit physiological adjustments at the molecular level, underpinning a high thermal tolerance. In addition, results indicated substantial acclimation capacity, with no evidence of decreased performance under an ocean-warming scenario. Thermal safety margins were low for shrimp from intertidal rock pools but high for shrimp from subtidal habitats. We conclude that the thermal tolerance of this shrimp species may favor its ongoing invasion along the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, mainly in subtidal habitats, both under present and future thermal conditions.
KeywordsTropical shrimp Invasive species Warming oceans Rocky reefs Thermal biology Stress physiology
The present research was financially supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) through the WarmingWebs Project (PTDC/MAR-EST/2141/2012), the “Investigador FCT” position granted to C.V. and the strategic Projects UID/MAR/04292/2013 granted to MARE and UID/Multi/04378/2013 granted to UCIBIO. Authors C.M. and V.M. acknowledge Ph.D. Grants (SFRH/BD/92975/2013 and SFRH/BD/109618/2015, respectively), and M.C.L. acknowledges a post-doc Grant (SFRH/BPD/115298/2016), all Granted by FCT. The funding institution had no influence in the study design, collection and analysis of datasets or in the decision to publish the work. Authors would like to thank everyone who helped during field work and experimental trials, and to a Megan Walters for proofreading.
Compliance with ethical standards
Research involving animals
The authors declare that animal experiments followed legal guidelines for laboratory animal science and were authorized by competent authorities, as stated in the materials and methods subsection “Ethical guidelines”.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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