Advertisement

Biological Invasions

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 1055–1073 | Cite as

Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) modifies microenvironment to promote nonnative plant communities

  • David R. CarterEmail author
  • Robert A. Slesak
  • Timothy B. Harrington
  • David H. Peter
  • Anthony W. D’Amato
Original Paper

Abstract

Scotch broom [Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link] is a globally important nitrogen (N)-fixing invasive plant species that has potential to alter soil water dynamics, soil chemistry, and plant communities. We evaluated the effects of Scotch broom on soil moisture, soil chemistry, soil temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and vegetation communities over 4 years at a site recently harvested for timber. Treatments of Scotch broom (either present via planting or absent) and background vegetation (either present or absent via herbicide treatments) were applied to 4 m2 plots. Background vegetation was associated with the greatest decrease of soil water content (SWC) among treatments. During the driest year, Scotch broom showed some evidence of increased early-and late-season soil water usage, and, briefly, a high usage relative to background vegetation plots. On a percent cover basis, Scotch broom had a substantially greater negative influence on SWC than did background vegetation. Surprisingly, Scotch broom was not consistently associated with increases in total soil N, but there was evidence of increasing soil water N when Scotch broom was present. Scotch broom-only plots had greater concentrations of soil water magnesium (Mg2+) and calcium (Ca2+) than other treatments. On a percent cover basis, Scotch broom had a uniquely high demand for potassium (K+) relative to the background vegetation. Average soil temperature was slightly greater, and soil surface PAR lower, with Scotch broom present. Scotch broom-absent plots increased in species diversity and richness over time, while Scotch broom-present plots remained unchanged. Scotch broom presence was associated with an increase in cover of nonnative sweet vernalgrass (Anthoxanthum odoratum L.). Scotch broom generated positive feedbacks with resource conditions that favored its dominance and the establishment of nonnative grass.

Keywords

Soil properties Pacific Northwest Extended growing season Soil water 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support for this research was provided by the USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture (Grants.gov number: GRANT 11325729). We wish to thank Green Diamond Resource Company for use of their land and logistical support. We would like to thank James Dollins for all of his efforts on this project.

Supplementary material

10530_2018_1885_MOESM1_ESM.docx (30 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 30 kb)
10530_2018_1885_MOESM2_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 15 kb)

References

  1. Allen ON, Allen EK (1981) The Leguminosae. MacMillan, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison SD, Vitousek PM (2004) Rapid nutrient cycling in leaf litter from invasive plants in Hawai’i. Oecologia 141:612–619CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bannister P (1986) Observations on water potential and drought resistance of trees and shrubs after a period of summer drought around Dunedin, New Zealand. NZ J Bot 24:387–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beatty SW, Sholes OD (1988) Leaf litter effect on plant species composition of deciduous forest treefall pits. Can J For Res 18:553–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boldrin D, Leung AK, Bengough AG (2017) Correlating hydrologic reinforcement of vegetated soil with plant traits during establishment of woody perennials. Plant Soil 416:437–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bossard CC, Rejmanek M (1992) Why have green stems? Funct Ecol 6:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bossard CC, Rejmanek M (1994) Herbivory, growth, seed production, and resprouting of an exotic invasive shrub. Biol Conserv 67:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broadbent AAD, Orwin KH, Peltzer DA, Dickie IA, Mason NWH, Ostle NJ, Stevens CJ (2017) Invasive N-fixer impacts on litter decomposition driven by changes to soil properties not litter quality. Ecosystems 20:1151–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brubaker LB (1980) Spatial patterns of tree growth anomalies in the Pacific Northwest. Ecology 61:798–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Busse MD, Ratcliff AW, Shestak CJ, Powers RF (2001) Glyphosate toxicity and the effects of long-term vegetation control on soil microbial communities. Soil Biol Biochem 33(12–13):1777–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caldwell BA (2006) Effects of invasive scotch broom on soil properties in a Pacific coastal prairie soil. Appl Soil Ecol 32:149–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crews TE (1993) Phosphorus regulation of nitrogen fixation in a traditional Mexican agroecosystem. Biogeochemistry 21:141–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dassonwille N, Vanderhoven S, Vanparys V, Hayez M, Gruber W, Meerts P (2008) Impacts of alien invasive plants on soil nutrients are correlated with initial site conditions in NW Europe. Oecologia 133:206–214Google Scholar
  14. Ehrenfeld JG (2003) Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes. Ecosystems 6:503–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ehrenfeld JG, Kourtev P, Huang W (2001) Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests. Ecol Appl 11:1287–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fogarty G, Facelli JM (1999) Growth and competition of Cytisus scoparius, an invasive shrub, and Australian native shrubs. Plant Ecol 144:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grove S, Haubensak KA, Parker IM (2012) Direct and indirect effects of allelopathy in the soil legacy of an exotic plant invasion. Plant Ecol 213:1869–1882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grove S, Parker IM, Haubensak KA (2015) Persistence of a soil legacy following removal of nitrogen fixing invader. Biol Invasions 17:2621–2631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hardy RWF, Havelka UD (1976) Photosynthate as a major factor limiting nitrogen fixation by field-grown legumes with emphasis on soybeans. In: Numan PS (ed) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 421–439Google Scholar
  20. Harrington TB (2011) Quantifying competitive ability of perennial grasses to inhibit Scotch broom. Research Paper PNW-RP-587. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harrington TB, Schoenholtz SH (2010) Effects of logging debris on five-year development of competing vegetation and planted Douglas-fir. Can J For Res 40:500–510.  https://doi.org/10.1139/X10-001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haubensak KA, Parker IM (2004) Soil changes accompanying invasion of the exotic shrub Cytisus scoparius in glacial outwash prairies in Western Washington [USA]. Plant Ecol 175:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Henderson JA, Peter DH, Lesher RD, Shaw DC (1989) Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP 001-88, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  24. Knapp AK, Seastedt TR (1986) Detritus accumulation limits the productivity of tallgrass prairie. Bioscience 36:662–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lang M, Hanslin HM, Kollmann J, Wagner T (2017) Suppression of an invasive legume by a native grass—high impact of priority effects. Basic Appl Ecol 22:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lenth RV (2016) Least-squares means: the R Package lsmeans. J Stat Softw 69:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Levine JM, Adler PB, Yelenik SG (2004) A meta-analysis of biotic resistance to exotic plant invasions. Ecol Lett 7:975–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matías L, Quero JL, Zamora R, Castro J (2012) Evidence for plant traits driving specific drought resistance. A community field experiment. Environ Exp Bot 81:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mehlich A (1984) Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: a modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 15:1409–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mertens M, Höss S, Neumann G, Afzal J, Reichenbecher W (2018) Glyphosate, a chelating agent—relevant for ecological risk assessment? Environ Sci Pollut Res 28:5298–5317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oksanen JF, Blanchet G, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlinn D, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHH, Szoecs E, Wagner H (2017) Vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.4-5Google Scholar
  32. Parker IM, Harpole W, Dionne D (1997) Plant community diversity and invasion of exotic shrub Cytisus scoparius: testing hypotheses on invisibility and impact. In: Dunn PV, Ewing K (eds) Ecology and conservation of the Southern Puget Sound Prairie Landscape: the land conservancy. Nature Conservancy of Washington, Washington, pp 149–161Google Scholar
  33. Paynter Q, Downey PO, Sheppard AW (2003) Age structure and growth of the woody legume weed Cytisus scoparius in native and exotic habitats: implications for control. J Appl Ecol 40:470–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Peter DH, Harrington TB (2018) Effects of forest harvesting, logging debris, and herbicides on the composition, diversity and assembly of a western Washington, USA plant community. For Ecol Manag 417:18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pinheiro J, Bates D, DebRoy S, Sarkar D, R Development Core Team (2013) nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R package version 3.1-108Google Scholar
  36. Potter KJB, Kritcos DJ, Watt MS, Leriche A (2009) The current and future potential distribution of Cytisus scoparius: a weed of pastoral systems, natural ecosystems and plantation forestry. Weed Res 49:271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University. http://prism.oregonstate.edu. Created 4 Nov 2017
  38. Prober SM, Lunt IE (2009) Restoration of Themeda australis swards suppresses soil nitrate and enhances ecological resistance to invasion by exotic annuals. Biol Invasions 11:171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. R Core Team (2017) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/
  40. Richardson B, Whitehead D, McCracken IJ (2002) Root-zone water storage and growth of Pinus radiata in the presence of a broom understorey. NZ J For Sci 32(2):2008–2220Google Scholar
  41. Ruesink J, Parker I, Groom M, Kareiva P (1995) Reducing the risks of nonindigenous species introductions. Bioscience 45:465–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shaben J, Myers JH (2009) Relationships between Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius), soil nutrients, and plant diversity in the Garry oak savannah ecosystem. Plant Ecol 207:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Slesak RA, Schoenholtz SH, Harrington TB, Strahm BD (2009) Dissolved carbon and nitrogen leaching following variable logging-debris retention and competing-vegetation control in Douglas-fir plantations of western Oregon and Washington. Can J For Res 39:1484–1497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Slesak RA, Harrington TB, D’Amato AW (2016) Invasive Scotch broom alters soil chemical properties in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Plant Soil 398:281–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Thorne MS, Skinner QD, Smith MA, Rodgers JD, Laycock WA, Cerekci SA (2002) Evaluation of a technique for measuring canopy volume of shrubs. J Range Manag 55:235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (1968) Flora Europea, vol 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 89Google Scholar
  47. Vilà M, Espinar JL, Hejda M, Hulme PE, Jarošík V, Maron JL, Pergl J, Schaffner U, Sun Y, Pyšek P (2011) Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Ecol Lett 14:702–708CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Waterhouse BM (1988) Broom (Cytisus scoparius) at Barrington Tops, New South Wales. Aust Geogr Stud 26:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Watt MS, Whitehead D, Mason EG, Richardson B, Kimberly MO (2003) The influence of weed competition for light and water on growth and dry matter partitioning of young Pinus radiata, at a dryland site. For Ecol Manag 183:363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wearne LJ, Morgan JW (2004) Communtiy-level changes in Australian subalpine vegetation following invasion by the non-native shrub Cytisus scoparius. J Veg Sci 15:595–604Google Scholar
  51. Wearne LJ, Morgan JW (2006) Shrub invasion into subalpine vegetation: implication for restoration of the native ecosystem. Plant Ecol 183:361–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Weidenhamer JD, Callaway RM (2010) Direct and indirect effects of invasive plants on soil chemistry and ecosystem function. J Chem Ecol 36:59–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Wheeler CT, Perry DA, Helgerson O, Gordon JC (1979) Winter fixation of nitrogen in Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius). New Phytol 82:697–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wheeler CT, Helgerson O, Perry DA, Gordon JC (1987) Nitrogen fixation and biomass accumulation in plant communities dominated by Cytisus scoparius L. in Oregon and Scotland. J Appl Ecol 24:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Williams PA (1981) Aspects of the ecology of broom (Cytisus scoparius) in Canterbury, New Zealand. NZ J Bot 19:31–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhou T, Shi P, Hui D, Luo Y (2009) Global pattern of temperature sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration (Q10) and its implications for carbon-climate feedback. J Geophys Res 114:1–9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. Carter
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert A. Slesak
    • 2
  • Timothy B. Harrington
    • 3
  • David H. Peter
    • 3
  • Anthony W. D’Amato
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Forest Resources and Environmental ConservationVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of Forest ResourcesUniversity of MinnesotaSaint PaulUSA
  3. 3.USDA Forest ServicePacific Northwest Research StationOlympiaUSA
  4. 4.Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural ResourcesUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations