Biotechnology Letters

, Volume 41, Issue 10, pp 1121–1131 | Cite as

Ac25 in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus was crucial for progeny budded virion production

  • Yi Guo
  • Aihua Liang
  • Yuejun FuEmail author
Original Research Paper



To analyze the effect of Ac25 on the proliferation of AcMNPV (Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus) progeny virus and its function in virogenic stroma.


AcMNPV is a model of baculovirus and is the most widely studied baculovirus. Ac25, as a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, is involved in viral genomic DNA replication. Viral proliferation assay showed that AcMNPV progeny virus could not be produced when Ac25 was knocked out, which indicated it was crucial for BV production. Absolute quantitative PCR analysis indicated that Ac25 was able to promote replication of the AcMNPV genome in host Sf9 cells. It was also found that Ac25 could increase the transcription level of 38k and vp39 late expression genes, and inhibit host cell proliferation.


Ac25 is highly accumulated in the nucleus and promotes progeny virus production by stimulating viral genome replication and up-regulating the expression of late genes. Two potential applications of vAc-Ac25-EGFP were proposed: an improved bac-to-bac eukaryotic protein expression systems and biopesticides.


Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cell Ac25 Biopesticide 



The present work was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31272100) and Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province (No. 201801D121193) to YJ Fu. It was also supported by grants from Shanxi ‘1331 project’ Collaborative Innovation Center (1331 CIC) and Higher Education Institution Project of Shanxi Province: Ecological Remediation of Soil Pollution Disciplines Group (No. 20181401) to Y. Fu.


  1. Lin CH, Jarvis DL (2013) Utility of temporally distinct baculovirus promoters for constitutive and baculovirus-inducible transgene expression in transformed insect cells. J Biotechnol 165:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Mainz D, Quadt I, Knebel-Mörsdorf D (2002) Nuclear IE2 structures are related to viral DNA replication sites during baculovirus infection. J Virol 76:5198–5207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Mikhailov VS, Mikhailova AL, Iwanaga M, Gomi S, Maeda S (1998) Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a DNA-binding protein capable of destabilizing duplex DNA. J Virol 72:3107–3116Google Scholar
  4. Mikhailov VS, Vanarsdall AL, Rohrmann GF (2007) Isolation and characterization of the DNA-binding protein (DBP) of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virology 370:415–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Miranda-Saksena M, Denes CE, Diefenbach RJ, Cunningham AL (2018) Infection and transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 in neurons: role of the cytoskeleton. Viruses 10:E92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mohammad M, Mazhar H, Leila M, Sassan A (2015) The baculovirus anti-apoptotic p35 protein functions as an inhibitor of the host RNA interference antiviral response. J Virol 89:8182–8192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Okano K, Mikhailov VS, Maeda S (1999) Colocalization of baculovirus IE-1 and two DNA-binding proteins, DBP and LEF-3, to viral replication factories. J Virol 73:110–119Google Scholar
  8. Peng K, Wu MZ, Deng F, Song JJ, Dong CS, Wang HL, Hu ZH (2010) Identification of protein-protein interactions of the occlusion-derived virus-associated proteins of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopoly-hedrovirus. J Gen Virol 91:659–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Popham HJ, Nusawardani T, Bonning BC (2016) Introduction to the use of baculoviruses as biological insecticides. Methods Mol Biol 1350:383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rohrmann GF (2013) Baculovirus molecular biology. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechology Information, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  11. Schudt G, Dolnik O, Kolesnikova L, Biedenkopf N, Herwig A, Becker S (2015) Transport of ebolavirus nucleocapsids is dependent on actin polymerization: live-cell imaging analysis of ebolavirus-infected cells. J Infect Dis 212(Suppl 2):S160–S166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Vanarsdall AL, Mikhailov VS, Rohrmann GF (2007) Characterization of a baculovirus lacking the DBP (DNA-binding protein) gene. Virology 364:475–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wu W, Passarelli AL (2010) Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus Ac92 (ORF92, P33) is required for budded virus production and multiply enveloped occlusion-derived virus formation. J Virol 84:12351–12361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wu C, Wang S (2012) A pH-sensitive heparin-binding sequence from Baculovirus gp64 protein is important for binding to mammalian cells but not to Sf9 insect cells. J Virol 86:484–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Young JC, MacKinnon EA, Faulkner P (1993) The architecture of the virogenic stroma in isolated nuclei of Spodoptera frugiperda cells in vitro infected by Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Struct Biol 110:141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of EducationInstitute of Biotechnology, Shanxi UniversityTaiyuanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations