Enzymatic transformation of ginsenosides Re, Rg1, and Rf to ginsenosides Rg2 and aglycon PPT by using β-glucosidase from Thermotoga neapolitana
To enzymatically transform protopanaxatriol by using β-glucosidase from Thermotoga neapolitana (T. neapolitana) DSM 4359.
Recombinant β-glucosidase was purified, which molecular weight was about 79.5 kDa. High levels of ginsenoside were obtained using the follow reaction conditions: 2 mg ml−1 ginsenoside, 25 U ml−1 enzyme, 85 °C, and pH 5.0. β-glucosidase converted ginsenoside Re to Rg2, Rf and Rg1 to APPT completely after 3 h under the given conditions, respectively. The enzyme created 1.66 mg ml−1 Rg2 from Re with 553 mg l−1 h−1, 0.85 mg ml−1, and 1.01 mg ml−1 APPT from Rg1 and Rf with 283 and 316 mg l−1 h−1 APPT.
β-glucosidase could be useful for the high-yield, rapid, and low-cost preparation of ginsenoside Rg2 from Re, and APPT from the ginsenosides Rg1 and Rf.
KeywordsBiotransformation Escherichia coli Enzymatic Genes Transformation
Supplementary Table 1—Strains and plasmid used.
This study was funded by Changbai Mountain Scholars Fund Project (Grant Number 00566).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Christensen LP (2009) Ginsenosides chemistry, biosynthesis, analysis, and potential health effects. Adv Food Nutr Res 55:1–99Google Scholar
- Cui L, Wu T, Liu XQ, Liu YY, Li QN (2002) Combination of ginsenosides with low dose estrogen showed synergetic effect on ovariectomy induced osteopenia in rats. Yao Xue Xue Bao 37:501–505Google Scholar
- Cui XM, Li YR, Lu WW, Cui L, Liu J, Tian JM, Li LY, Ye JM, Zhang ZW, Dou Y (2003) Protective effect of Rg2 on myocardium of dog with acute cardiogenic shock. J Jilin Univ 29:392–394Google Scholar
- Cui CH, Liu QM, Kim JK, Sung BH, Kim S, Kim SC, Im WT (2013) Identification and characterization of a Mucilaginibacter sp. strain QM49 –glucosidase and Its use in the production of the pharmaceutically active minor ginsenosides (S)-Rh1 and (S)-Rg2. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:5788–5798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lee GW, Yoo MH, Shin KC, Kim KR, Kim YS, Lee KW, Oh DK (2013) β-Glucosidase from Penicillium aculeatum hydrolyzes exo-, 3-O-, and 6-O-β-glucosides but not 20-O-β-glucoside and other glycosides of ginsenosides. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:6615–6624Google Scholar
- Lee HJ, Shin KC, Lee GW, Oh DK (2014) Production of aglycone protopanaxatriol from ginseng root extract using Dictyoglomus turgidum β-glycosidase that specifically hydrolyzes the xylose at the C-6 position and the glucose in protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:3659–3667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Quan LH, Min JW, Jin Y, Wang C, Kim YJ, Yang DC (2012b) Enzymatic biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to 20(S)-Rg3 by recombinant β-glucosidase from Microbacterium esteraromaticum. J Agric Food Chem 94:377–384Google Scholar
- Tian JM, Zheng SQ, Guo WF, Ye JM, Li LY (2004) Ginsenoside Rg2 protection against apoptosis in ischemia and reperfusion rat myocardium. Chin Pharmacol Bull 20:480Google Scholar
- Wang L, Liu QM, Sung BH, An DS, Lee HG, Kim SG, Kim SC, Lee ST, Im WT (2011b) Bioconversion of ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Rd by novel β-glucosidase hydrolyzing outer 3-O glycoside from Sphingomonas sp. 2F2, Cloning, expression, and enzyme characterization. J Biotechnol 156:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar