Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by cell-free extracts from some bacteria species for dye removal from wastewater

  • Nanis G. Allam
  • Gehan A. Ismail
  • Walaa M. El-Gemizy
  • Mohamed A. SalemEmail author
Original Research Paper



To investigate the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using extracts of some bacterial isolates Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus paralicheniformis and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. The formation of AgNPs was detected by the change in color into yellow and confirmed by the UV–Vis spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).


The obtained AgNPs were spherical to oval in shape with particle size ranged from 4 to 20 nm and surface area 118 m2/g. The AgNPs have been used as nanocatalyst for the removal of malachite green dye (MG) from aqueous solution. The dye was chosen as a model dye released in wastewater. The AgNPs showed excellent nanocatalyst for the removal of MG. The dye removal process was observed by the continuous decrease in dye absorbance at 617 nm until it vanished over 160 min. The removal kinetics followed closely the pseudo-first-order kinetic model.


The B. paralicheniformis strain KJ-16 was the most effective isolated bacteria to give extract for biosynthesis of AgNPs and dye removal. This method may be considered easy and eco-friendly, and could be applicable for large-scale decontamination of wastewater from harmful dyes.


AgNPs Malachite green Dye removal Bacteria 


Supporting information

Supplementary Figure 1—The phylogenetic analysis of the 16s rRNA of B. paralicheniformis strain KJ-16.

Supplementary Figure 2—XRD patterns of AgNPs synthesized by different species of bacteria: (a) B. pumilus, (b) B. paralicheniformis and (c) S. paucimobilis.

Supplementary Figure 3—FT-IR spectra of (a) CFEs of B. pumilus, (b) AgNPs synthesized by B. pumilus, (c) CFEs of B.paralicheniformis, (d) AgNPs synthesized by B. paralicheniformis, (e) CFEs of S.paucimobilis. and (f) AgNPs synthesized by S. paucimobilis.

Supplementary Figure 4(a) Pseudo-first order plots for the removal of the dye in presence of AgNPs of B. paralicheniformis, (b) Variation of pseudo first order rate constant with dye concentration, (c) Pseudo-second order plot for the removal of the dye in presence of AgNPs, (d) Variation of pseudo second order rate constant on dye concentration with AgNPs. The concentration of AgNPs was fixed at 36 × 10−12 mol/L at 30 °C.

Supplementary Figure 5—(a) Pseudo-first order plots for the removal of dye at different AgNPs concentrations. (b) Variation of pseudo first order rate constant with different AgNPs concentrations. (c) Pseudo-second order plots AgNPs concentration. (d) Variation of pseudo second order rate constant with AgNPs concentration. The concentration of MG dye was fixed at 2.5 × 10−5 mol/L at 30 °C.

Supplementary Table 1—FTIR data of cell free extracts (CFEs) derived from B. pumilus, B. paralicheniformis and S. paucimobilis. FTIR of AgNPs synthesized by reduction of Ag+ ions by B. pumilus, B. paralicheniformis, and S. paucimobilis.

Supplementary Table 2—Pseudo-first–order and pseudo-second–order rate constants of dye removal from wastewater effluent using different dye concentration.

Supplementary Table 3—Pseudo-first –order and pseudo-second–order rate constants for the removal of MG from wastewater effluents at different concentrations of AgNPs, bacterial suspension and AgNPs + bacterial suspensions.

Supplementary material

10529_2019_2652_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.3 mb)
Electronic supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1302 kb)


  1. Ahmad A, Senapati S, Khan MI, Kumar R, Ramani R, Srinivas V, Sastry M (2003) Intracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a novel alkalotolerant actinomycete, Rhodococcus species. Nanotechnology 14(7):824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed S, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S (2016) A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: a green expertise. J Adv Res 7(1):17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akar ST, Özcan AS, Akar T, Özcan A, Kaynak Z (2009) Biosorption of a reactive textile dye from aqueous solutions utilizing an agro-waste. Desalination 249(2):757–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akpan UG, Hameed BH (2009) Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2-based photocatalysts: a review. J Hazard Mater 170(2–3):520–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aksu Z (2005) Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants: a review. Process Biochem 40(3):997–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aksu Z, Tezer S (2005) Biosorption of reactive dyes on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Process Biochem 40(3–4):1347–1361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Das VL, Thomas R, Varghese RT, Soniya E, Mathew J, Radhakrishnan E (2014) Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by the Bacillus strain CS 11 isolated from industrialized area. 3 Biotech 4(2):121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daud N, Ahmad M, Hameed B (2010) Decolorization of acid red 1 dye solution by fenton-like process using Fe–montmorillonite K10 catalyst. Chem Eng J 165(1):111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Durán N, Marcato PD, Alves OL, De Souza GI, Esposito E (2005) Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains. J Nanobiotechnol 3(1):8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gaikwad AV, Verschuren P, Kinge S, Rothenberg G, Eiser E (2008) Matter of age: growing anisotropic gold nanocrystals in organic media. Phys Chem Chem Phys 10(7):951–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gupta V (2009) Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal—a review. J Environ Manage 90(8):2313–2342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hassan SA, Darwish AS, Gobara HM, Abed-Elsatar NE, Fouda SR (2017) Interaction profiles in poly (amidoamine) dendrimer/montmorillonite or rice straw ash hybrids-immobilized magnetite nanoparticles governing their removal efficiencies of various pollutants in wastewater. J Mol Liq 230:353–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hirsch LR, Stafford RJ, Bankson J, Sershen SR, Rivera B, Price R, West JL (2003) Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100(23):13549–13554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jyoti K, Singh A (2016) Green synthesis of nanostructured silver particles and their catalytic application in dye degradation. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 14(2):311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kathiresan K, Manivannan S, Nabeel M, Dhivya B (2009) Studies on silver nanoparticles synthesized by a marine fungus, Penicillium fellutanum isolated from coastal mangrove sediment. Colloids Surf B 71(1):133–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kittler S, Greulich C, Diendorf J, Köller M, Epple M (2010) Toxicity of silver nanoparticles increases during storage because of slow dissolution under release of silver ions. Chem Mater 22(16):4548–4554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kotloff RM, Blosser S, Fulda GJ, Malinoski D, Ahya VN, Angel L, Halpern SD (2015) Management of the potential organ donor in the ICU: society of critical care medicine/American college of chest physicians/association of organ procurement organizations consensus statement. Crit Care Med 43(6):1291–1325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kumar KV, Sivanesan S, Ramamurthi V (2005) Adsorption of malachite green onto Pithophora sp., a fresh water algae: equilibrium and kinetic modelling. Process Biochem 40(8):2865–2872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu X, Atwater M, Wang J, Huo Q (2007) Extinction coefficient of gold nanoparticles with different sizes and different capping ligands. Colloids Surf B 58(1):3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu B, Wang J, Zhang G, Bai R, Pang Y (2014) Flavone-based ESIPT ratiometric chemodosimeter for detection of cysteine in living cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6(6):4402–4407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Malarkodi C, Chitra K, Rajeshkumar S, Gnanajobitha G, Paulkumar K, Vanaja M, Annadurai G (2013) Novel eco-friendly synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles by using Planomicrobium sp. and its antimicrobial evaluation. Der Pharmacia Sinica 4(3):59–66Google Scholar
  22. Mandal D, Bolander ME, Mukhopadhyay D, Sarkar G, Mukherjee P (2006) The use of microorganisms for the formation of metal nanoparticles and their application. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69(5):485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mitrano DM, Barber A, Bednar A, Westerhoff P, Higgins CP, Ranville JF (2012) Silver nanoparticle characterization using single particle ICP-MS(SP-ICP- S) and asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation ICP-MS(AF4-ICP-MS)†. J Anal At Spectrom 27:1131–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mittal AK, Bhaumik J, Kumar S, Banerjee UC (2014) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles: elucidation of prospective mechanism and therapeutic potential. J Colloid Interface Sci 415:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Movasaghi Z, Rehman S, Rehman IU (2007) Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues. Appl Spectrosc Rev 42(5):493–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Namasivayam SKR, Gnanendra EK, Reepika R (2010) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Lactobaciluus acidophilus 01 strain and evaluation of its in vitro genomic DNA toxicity. Nano-Micro Lett 2(3):160–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ngah WW, Teong L, Hanafiah M (2011) Adsorption of dyes and heavy metal ions by chitosan composites: a review. Carbohyd Polym 83(4):1446–1456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nirmohi K, Agnihotri SG (2016) Catalytic degradation of methylene blue as a model dye using silver nanoparticles. Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, PatialaGoogle Scholar
  29. Omidi B, Hashemi SJ, Bayat M, Larijani K (2014) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Lactobacillus fermentum. Bull Env Pharmacol Life Sci 3(12):186–192Google Scholar
  30. Saifuddin N, Wong C, Yasumira A (2009) Rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using culture supernatant of bacteria with microwave irradiation. J Chem 6(1):61–70Google Scholar
  31. Salem MA (2010) The role of polyaniline salts in the removal of direct blue 78 from aqueous solution: a kinetic study. React Funct Polym 70(10):707–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Salem MA, Bakr EA, El-Attar HG (2018) Pt@ Ag and Pd@ Ag core/shell nanoparticles for catalytic degradation of Congo red in aqueous solution. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 188:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sastry M, Ahmad A, Khan MI, Kumar R (2003) Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles using fungi and actinomycete. Curr Sci 85(2):162–170Google Scholar
  34. Srinivasan A, Viraraghavan T (2010) Decolorization of dye wastewaters by biosorbents: a review. J Environ Manage 91(10):1915–1929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tiquia S, Tam N (1998) Elimination of phytotoxicity during co-composting of spent pig-manure sawdust litter and pig sludge. Biores Technol 65(1–2):43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tiquia S, Tam N, Hodgkiss I (1996) Effects of composting on phytotoxicity of spent pig-manure sawdust litter. Environ Pollut 93(3):249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wojnarowicz J, Mukhovskyi R, Pietrzykowska E, Kusnieruk S, Mizeracki J, Lojkowski W (2016) Microwave solvothermal synthesis and characterization of manganese-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Beilstein J Nanotechnol 7:721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu Z-S, Ren W, Wen L, Gao L, Zhao J, Chen Z, Cheng H-M (2010) Graphene anchored with Co3O4 nanoparticles as anode of lithium ion batteries with enhanced reversible capacity and cyclic performance. ACS Nano 4(6):3187–3194CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nanis G. Allam
    • 1
  • Gehan A. Ismail
    • 1
  • Walaa M. El-Gemizy
    • 1
  • Mohamed A. Salem
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Microbiology Division, Botany Department, Faculty of ScienceTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  2. 2.Chemistry Department, Faculty of ScienceTanta UniversityTantaEgypt

Personalised recommendations