Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by cell-free extracts from some bacteria species for dye removal from wastewater
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To investigate the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using extracts of some bacterial isolates Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus paralicheniformis and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. The formation of AgNPs was detected by the change in color into yellow and confirmed by the UV–Vis spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
The obtained AgNPs were spherical to oval in shape with particle size ranged from 4 to 20 nm and surface area 118 m2/g. The AgNPs have been used as nanocatalyst for the removal of malachite green dye (MG) from aqueous solution. The dye was chosen as a model dye released in wastewater. The AgNPs showed excellent nanocatalyst for the removal of MG. The dye removal process was observed by the continuous decrease in dye absorbance at 617 nm until it vanished over 160 min. The removal kinetics followed closely the pseudo-first-order kinetic model.
The B. paralicheniformis strain KJ-16 was the most effective isolated bacteria to give extract for biosynthesis of AgNPs and dye removal. This method may be considered easy and eco-friendly, and could be applicable for large-scale decontamination of wastewater from harmful dyes.
KeywordsAgNPs Malachite green Dye removal Bacteria
Supplementary Figure 1—The phylogenetic analysis of the 16s rRNA of B. paralicheniformis strain KJ-16.
Supplementary Figure 2—XRD patterns of AgNPs synthesized by different species of bacteria: (a) B. pumilus, (b) B. paralicheniformis and (c) S. paucimobilis.
Supplementary Figure 3—FT-IR spectra of (a) CFEs of B. pumilus, (b) AgNPs synthesized by B. pumilus, (c) CFEs of B.paralicheniformis, (d) AgNPs synthesized by B. paralicheniformis, (e) CFEs of S.paucimobilis. and (f) AgNPs synthesized by S. paucimobilis.
Supplementary Figure 4—(a) Pseudo-first order plots for the removal of the dye in presence of AgNPs of B. paralicheniformis, (b) Variation of pseudo first order rate constant with dye concentration, (c) Pseudo-second order plot for the removal of the dye in presence of AgNPs, (d) Variation of pseudo second order rate constant on dye concentration with AgNPs. The concentration of AgNPs was fixed at 36 × 10−12 mol/L at 30 °C.
Supplementary Figure 5—(a) Pseudo-first order plots for the removal of dye at different AgNPs concentrations. (b) Variation of pseudo first order rate constant with different AgNPs concentrations. (c) Pseudo-second order plots AgNPs concentration. (d) Variation of pseudo second order rate constant with AgNPs concentration. The concentration of MG dye was fixed at 2.5 × 10−5 mol/L at 30 °C.
Supplementary Table 1—FTIR data of cell free extracts (CFEs) derived from B. pumilus, B. paralicheniformis and S. paucimobilis. FTIR of AgNPs synthesized by reduction of Ag+ ions by B. pumilus, B. paralicheniformis, and S. paucimobilis.
Supplementary Table 2—Pseudo-first–order and pseudo-second–order rate constants of dye removal from wastewater effluent using different dye concentration.
Supplementary Table 3—Pseudo-first –order and pseudo-second–order rate constants for the removal of MG from wastewater effluents at different concentrations of AgNPs, bacterial suspension and AgNPs + bacterial suspensions.
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