Advertisement

Biotechnology Letters

, Volume 40, Issue 9–10, pp 1311–1327 | Cite as

Simulation of algal photobioreactors: recent developments and challenges

  • Xi Gao
  • Bo Kong
  • R. Dennis Vigil
Review
  • 104 Downloads

Abstract

Widespread cultivation of phototrophic microalgae for sustainable production of a variety of renewable products, for wastewater treatment, and for atmospheric carbon mitigation requires not only improved microorganisms but also significant improvements to process design and scaleup. The development of simulation tools capable of providing quantitative predictions for photobioreactor performance could contribute to improved reactor designs and it could also support process scaleup, as it has in the traditional petro-chemical industries. However, the complicated dependence of cell function on conditions in the microenvironment, such as light availability, temperature, nutrient concentration, and shear strain rate render simulation of photobioreactors much more difficult than chemical reactors. Although photobioreactor models with sufficient predictive ability suitable for reactor design and scaleup do not currently exist, progress towards this goal has occurred in recent years. The current status of algal photobioreactor simulations is reviewed here, with an emphasis on the integration of and interplay between sub-models describing hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and microalgal growth kinetics. Some limitations of widely used models and computational methods are identified, as well as current challenges and opportunities for the advancement of algal photobioreactor simulation.

Keywords

Algae cultivation Computational fluid dynamics Photobioreactor Multiphase flow Radiation transport 

Nomenclature

a

Volumetric light attenuation coefficient

aa

Light absorption coefficient

Cb

Biomass concentration

Da,e

Effective turbulent diffusivity

I

Photon flux

I0

Incident photon flux

L

Light-path length

n

Index of refraction

\(R_{{x_{i} }}\)

Reaction rate of state i

\(\vec{r}\)

Position vector

\(\vec{s}\)

Light path direction vector

T

Temperature

xi

Mass fraction of photosynthetic unit state i

\(\vec{u}_{s}\)

Solid phase velocity

αs

Solid phase volume fraction

α1, α2

Coefficients for two-flux model

λ

Light wavelength

Ω

Solid angle

σ

Stefan–Boltzmann constant

\(\sigma_{s}\)

Light scattering coefficient

ρs

Solid phase density

\(\phi_{\lambda }\)

Wavelength-dependent phase function

µ

Light extinction coefficient

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support was provided for this work by National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1236676.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Acién Fernández FG, García Camacho F, Sánchez Pérez JA, Fernández Sevilla JM, Molina Grima E (1997) A model for light distribution and average solar irradiance inside outdoor tubular photobioreactors for microalgal mass culture. Biotechnol Bioeng 55:701–704Google Scholar
  2. Bari GS, Suess TN, Anderson GA, Gent SP (2014) Predicting hydrodynamic and heat transfer effects of sparger geometry and placement within a column photobioreactor using computational fluid dynamics. J Fuel Cell Sci Technol 11:031010Google Scholar
  3. Bari GS, Suess TN, Anderson GA, Gent SP (2015) Hydrodynamic and heat transfer effects of varying sparger spacing within a column photobioreactor using computational fluid dynamics. J Fuel Cell Sci Technol 12(1):011004Google Scholar
  4. Béchet Q, Shilton A, Guieysse B (2013) Modeling the effects of light and temperature on algae growth: state of the art and critical assessment for productivity prediction during outdoor cultivation. Biotechnol Adv 31:1648–1663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Béchet Q, Shilton A, Park JB, Craggs RJ, Guieysse B (2011) Universal temperature model for shallow algal ponds provides improved accuracy. Environ Sci Technol 45(8):3702–3709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernardi A, Perin G, Sforza E, Galvanin F, Morosinotto T, Bezzo F (2014) An identifiable state model to describe light intensity influence on microalgae growth. Ind Eng Chem Res 53:6738–6749PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bitog JPP, Lee IB, Oh HM, Hong SW, Seo IH, Kwon KS (2014) Optimised hydrodynamic parameters for the design of photobioreactors using computational fluid dynamics and experimental validation. Biosyst Eng 122:42–61Google Scholar
  8. Camacho Rubio F, Garcia Camacho F, Fernandez Sevilla JM, Christi Y, Molina Grima E (2003) A mechanicistic model of photosynthesis in microalgae. Biotechnol Bioeng 81:459–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen Z, Jiang Z, Zhang X, Zhang J (2016) Numerical and experimental study on the CO2 gas-liquid mass transfer in flat-plate airlift photobioreactor with different baffles. Biochem Eng J 106(15):129–138Google Scholar
  10. Cheng W, Huang J, Chen J (2016) Computational fluid dynamics simulation of mixing characteristics and light regime in tubular photobioreactors with novel static mixers. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 91:327–335Google Scholar
  11. Cornet JF, Dussap CG, Gros JB (1994) Conversion of radiant light energy in photobioreactors. AIChE J 40(6):1055–1066Google Scholar
  12. Cornet JF, Dussap CG, Gros JB (1995) A simplified monodimensional approach for modeling coupling between radiant light transfer and growth kinetics in photobioreactors. Chem Eng Sci 50(9):1489–1500Google Scholar
  13. Cornet JF, Dussap CG (1998) Gros JB (1998) Kinetics and energetics of photosynthetic micro-organisms in photobioreactors: application to Spirulina growth. Adv Biochem Eng 59:155–224Google Scholar
  14. Csogör Z, Herrenbauer M, Schmidt K, Posten C (2001) Light distribution in a novel photobioreactor—modeling for optimization. J Appl Physiol 13:325–333Google Scholar
  15. Delafosse A, Calvo S, Collignon ML, Delvigne F, Crine M, Thonart P, Toye D (2014) CFD-based compartment model for description of mixing in bioreactors. Chem Eng Sci 106:76–85Google Scholar
  16. Delafosse A, Calvo S, Collignon ML, Delvigne F, Crine M, Toye D (2015) Eulere Lagrange approach to model heterogeneities in stirred tank bioreactors—comparison to experimental flow characterization and particle tracking. Chem Eng Sci 134:457–466Google Scholar
  17. Duran JE, Taghipour F, Mohseni M (2010) Irradiance modeling in annular photoreactors using the finite-volume method. J Photochem Photobiol A 215(1):81–89Google Scholar
  18. Eilers PHC, Peeters JCH (1988) A model for the relationship between light intensity and the rate of photosynthesis in phytoplankton. Ecol Model 42:199–215Google Scholar
  19. Eilers PHC, Peeters JCH (1993) Dynamic behavior of a model for photosynthesis and photoinhibition. Ecol Model 69:113–133Google Scholar
  20. Gao X, Kong B, Ramezani M, Olsen MG, Vigil RD (2015a) An adaptive model for gas-liquid mass transfer in a Taylor vortex reactor. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 91:433–446Google Scholar
  21. Gao X, Kong B, Vigil RD (2015b) Characteristic time scales of mixing, mass transfer and biomass growth in a Taylor vortex algal photobioreactor. Bioresour Technol 198:283–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gao X, Kong B, Vigil RD (2015c) CFD investigation of bubble effects on Tayor-Couette flow patterns in the weakly turbulent vortex regime. Chem Eng J 270:508–518Google Scholar
  23. Gao X, Kong B, Vigil RD (2016a) CFD investigation of bubbly turbulent Tayor–Couette flow. Chin J Chem Eng 24:719–727Google Scholar
  24. Gao X, Kong B, Vigil RD (2016b) Comprehensive computational model for combining fluid hydrodynamics, light transport and biomass growth in a Taylor vortex algal photobioreactor: Lagrangian approach. Bioresour Technol 224:523–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gao X, Kong B, Vigil RD (2017) Comprehensive computational model for combining fluid hydrodynamics, light transport and biomass growth in a Taylor vortex algal photobioreactor: Eulerian approach. Algal Res 24:1–8Google Scholar
  26. Gao X, Kong B, Vigil RD (2018) Multiphysics simulation of biomass growth in an airlift photobioreactor: Effect of fluid mixing and shear stress. Bioresour Technol 251:75–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Garcia-Camacho F, Sanchez-Miron A, Molina-Grima E, Camacho-Rubio F, Merchuck J (2012) A mechanistic model of photosynthesis in microalgae including photoacclimation dynamics. J Theor Biol 304:1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Garcia-Ochoa F, Gomez E (2009) Bioreactor scale-up and oxygen transfer rate in microbial processes: an overview. Biotechnol Adv 27:153–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gerdes C, Suess T, Anderson G, Gent S (2014) Investigation of hydrodynamics and heat transfer effects due to light guides in a column photobioreactor. J Fuel Cell Sci Technol 11:041002Google Scholar
  30. Gómez-Pérez CA, Espinosa J, Montenegro Ruiz LC, van Boxtela AJB (2015) CFD simulation for reduced energy costs in tubular photobioreactors using wall turbulence promoters. Algal Res 12:1–9Google Scholar
  31. Han BP (2001) Photosynthesis-irradiance response at physiological level: A mechanicistic model. J Theor Biol 148:121–127Google Scholar
  32. Han BP (2002) A mechanistic model of algal photoinhibition induced by photodamage to Photosystem-II. J Theor Biol 214:519–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Han BP, Virtanen M, Koponen J, Straškraba M (2000) Effect of photoinhibition on algal photosynthesis: a dynamic model. J Plankton Res 22(5):865–885Google Scholar
  34. Heinrich JM, Niizawa I, Botta FA, Trombert AR, Irazoqui HA (2012) Analysis and design of photobioreactors for microalgae production I: experimental validation of a radiation field simulator based on a Monte Carlo algorithm. Photochem Photobiol 88:952–960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Higbie R (1935) The rate of absorption of a pure gas into the still liquid during short periods of exposure. Trans Am Inst Chem Eng 31:365Google Scholar
  36. Hreiz R, Sialve B, Morchain J, Escudié R, Steyer JP, Guiraud P (2014) Experimental and numerical investigation of hydrodynamics in raceway reactors used for algaculture. Chem Eng J 250:230–239Google Scholar
  37. Huang J, Feng F, Wan M, Ying J, Li Y, Qu X, Pan H, Shen G, Li W (2015a) Improving performance of flat-plate photobioreactors by installation of novel internal mixers optimized with computational fluid dynamics. Bioresour Technol 182:151–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Huang J, Kang S, Wan M, Li Y, Qu X, Feng F, Wang J, Wang W, Shen G, Li W (2015b) Numerical and experimental study on the performance of flat-plate photobioreactors with different inner structures for microalgae cultivation. J Appl Phycol 27:49–58Google Scholar
  39. Huang J, Li Y, Wan M, Yan Y, Feng F, Qu X, Wang J, Shen G, Li W, Fan J, Wang W (2014) Novel flat-plate photobioreactors for microalgae cultivation with special mixers to promote mixing along the light gradient. Bioresour Technol 159:8–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Huang J, Qu X, Wan M, Ying J, Li Y, Zhu F, Wang J, Shen G, Chen J, Li W (2015c) Investigation on the performance of raceway ponds with internal structures by the means of CFD simulations and experiments. Algal Res 10:64–71Google Scholar
  41. Huang Q, Liu T, Yang J, Yao L, Gao L (2011) Evaluation of radiative transfer using the finite volume method in cylindrical photoreactors. Chem Eng Sci 66(17):3930–3940Google Scholar
  42. Huang Q, Yang C, Yu G, Mao ZS (2010) CFD simulation of hydrodynamics and mass transfer in an internal airlift loop reactor using a steady two-fluid model. Chem Eng Sci 65(20):5527–5536Google Scholar
  43. Janssen M (2016) Microalgal photosynthesis and growth in mass culture. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  44. Joshi JB, Sharma MM (1979) A circulation cell model for bubble columns. Transac Inst Chem Eng 57:244–251Google Scholar
  45. Jupsin H, Praet E, Vasel JL (2003) Dynamic mathematical model of high rate algal ponds (HRAP). Water Sci Technol 48(2):197–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kawase Y, Halard B, Moo-Young M (1987) Theoretical prediction of volumetric mass transfer coefficients in bubble columns for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Chem Eng Sci 42(7):1609–1617Google Scholar
  47. Kawase Y, Hashiguchi N (1996) Gas-liquid mass transfer in external-loop airlift columns with newtonian and non-newtonian fluids. Chem Eng J 62(1):35–42Google Scholar
  48. Kong B, Shanks JV, Vigil RD (2013) Enhanced algal growth rate in a Taylor vortex reactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 110:2140–2149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kong B, Vigil RD (2013) Light-limited continuous culture of Chlorella vulgaris in a Taylor vortex reactor. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 32:884–890Google Scholar
  50. Kong B, Vigil RD (2014) Simulation of photosynthetically active radiation distribution in algal photobioreactors using a multidimensional spectral radiation model. Bioresour Technol 158:141–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kraakman NJ, Rocha-Rios J, van Loosdrecht MC (2011) Review of mass transfer aspects for biological gas treatment. Appl Microbiol Biot 91:873–886Google Scholar
  52. Kroon BMA, Thoms S (2006) From electron to biomass: a mechanistic model to describe phytoplankton photosynthesis and steady-state growth rates. J Phycol 42:593–609Google Scholar
  53. Krujatz F, Illing R, Krautwer T, Liao J, Helbig K, Goy K, Opitz J, Cuniberti G, Bley T, Weber J (2015) Light-field-characterization in a continuous hydrogen-producing photobioreactor by optical simulation and computational fluid dynamics. Biotechnol Bioeng 112:2439–2449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lamont JC, Scott D (1970) An eddy cell model of mass transfer into the surface of a turbulent liquid. AIChE J 16(4):513–519Google Scholar
  55. Lee HY, Erickson LE, Yang SS (1987) Kinetics and bioenergetics of light-limited photoautotrophic growth of Spirulina platensis. Biotechnol Bioeng 29:832–843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Li Q, Zhao X, Cheng K, Du W, Liu D (2013) Simulation and experimentation on the gas holdup characteristics of a novel oscillating airlift loop reactor. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 88:704–710Google Scholar
  57. Linek V, Kordač M, Fujasová M, Moucha T (2004) Gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient in stirred tanks interpreted through models of idealized eddy structure of turbulence in the bubble vicinity. Chem Eng Proc Intensif 43:1511–1517Google Scholar
  58. Luo HP, Al-Dahhan MH (2004) Analyzing and modeling of photobioreactors by combining first principles of physiology and hydrodynamics. Biotechnol Bioeng 85(4):382–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Luo HP, Al-Dahhan MH (2011) CFD simulations for local flow dynamics in a draft tube airlift bioreactor. Chem Eng Sci 66(5):907–923Google Scholar
  60. Luo HP, Al-Dahhan MH (2012) Airlift column photobioreactors for Porphyridium sp. culturing: Part II. Verification of dynamic growth rate model for reactor performance evaluation. Biotechnol Bioeng 109(4):942–949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Marshall HL, Geider RJ, Flynn KJ (2000) A mechanistic model of photoinhibition. New Phytol 145:347–359Google Scholar
  62. Marshall JS, Sala K (2011) A stochastic Lagrangian approach for simulating the effect of turbulent mixing on algae growth rate in a photobioreactor. Chem Eng Sci 66:384–392Google Scholar
  63. Massart A, Mirisola A, Lupant D (2014) Experimental characterization and numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics in an airlift photobioreactor for microalgae culture. Algal Res 6:210–217Google Scholar
  64. Meng C, Huang J, Ye C (2015) Comparing the performances of circular ponds with different impellers by CFD simulation and microalgae culture experiments. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 38:1347–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Moberg AK, Ellem GK, Jameson GJ, Herbertson JG (2012) Simulated cell trajectories in a stratified gas-liquid flow tubular photobioreactor. J Appl Phycol 24:357–363Google Scholar
  66. Mortuza SM, Gent SP, Kommareddy A, Anderson GA (2012) Investigation of bubble and fluid flow patterns within a column photobioreactor. J Fuel Cell Sci Technol 9:031006Google Scholar
  67. Muller-Feuga A, Le Guédes R, Pruvost J (2003) Benefits and limitations of modeling for optimization of Porphyridium cruentum cultures in an annular photobioreactor. J Biotech 103:153–163Google Scholar
  68. Nauha EK, Alopaeus V (2013) Modeling method for combining fluid dynamics and algal growth in a bubble column photobioreactor. Chem Eng J 229:559–568Google Scholar
  69. Nauha EK, Alopaeus V (2015) Modeling outdoors algal cultivation with compartmental approach. Chem Eng J 259:945–960Google Scholar
  70. Nikolaou A, Bernardi A, Meneghesso A, Bezzo F, Morosinotto T, Chachuat B (2015) A model of chlorophyll fluorescence in microalgae integrating photoproduction, photoinhibition and photoregulation. J Biotech 194:91–99Google Scholar
  71. Nikolaou A, Hartmann P, Sciandra A, Chachuat B, Bernard O (2016) Dynamic coupling of photoacclimation and photoinhibition in a model of microalgae growth. J Theor Biol 390:61–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Olivieri G, Gargiulo L, Lettieri P, Mazzei L, Salatino P, Marzocchella A (2015) Photobioreactors for microalgal cultures: A lagrangian model coupling hydrodynamics and kinetics. Biotechnol Progr 31(5):1259–1272Google Scholar
  73. Pahlow M (2005) Linking chlorophyll-nutrient dynamics to the Redfield N: C ratio with a model of optimal phytoplankton growth. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 287:33–43Google Scholar
  74. Pahlow M, Oschlies A (2009) Chain model of phytoplankton P, N and light colimitation. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 376:69–83Google Scholar
  75. Papáček Š, Jablonský J, Petera K, Rehák B, Matonoha C (2014) Modeling and optimization of microalgae growth in photobioreactors: a multidisciplinary problem. Interdiscip Symp Complex Syst 14:277–286Google Scholar
  76. Papadakis I, Kotzabasis K, Lika K (2012) Modeling the dynamic modulation of the light energy in photosynthetic algae. J Theor Biol 300:254–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Park S, Li Y (2015) Integration of biological kinetics and computational fluid dynamics to model the growth of nannochloropsis salina in an open channel raceway. Biotechnol Bioeng 112:923–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Pottier L, Pruvost J, Deremetz J, Cornet JF, Legrand J, Dussap CG (2005) A fully predictive model for one-dimensional light attenuation by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in a torus reactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 91(5):569–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Prussi M, Buffi M, Casini D, Chiaramonti D, Martelli F, Carnevale M, Tredici RM, Rodolfi L (2014) Experimental and numerical investigations of mixing in raceway ponds for algae cultivation. Biomass Bioenergy 67:390–400Google Scholar
  80. Pruvost J, Cornet JF, Legrand J (2008) Hydrodynamics influence on light conversion in photobioreactors: an energetically consistent analysis. Chem Eng Sci 63:3679–3694Google Scholar
  81. Pruvost J, Legrand J, Legentilhomme P, Muller-Feuga A (2002) Simulation of microalgae growth in limiting light conditions: flow effect. AIChE J 48(5):1109–1120Google Scholar
  82. Pruvost J, Legrand J, Legentilhomme P, Rosant JM (2004) Numerical investigation of bend and torus flows. Part II. Flow simulation in torus reactor. Chem Eng Sci 59(16):3359–3370Google Scholar
  83. Pruvost J, Pottier L, Legrand J (2006) Numerical investigation of hydrodynamic and mixing conditions in a torus photobioreactor. Chem Eng Sci 61:4476–4489Google Scholar
  84. Ramezani M, Kong B, Gao X, Olsen MG, Vigil RD (2015) Experimental measurement of oxygen mass transfer and bubble size distribution in an air-water multiphase Taylor–Couette vortex bioreactor. Chem Eng J 279:286–296Google Scholar
  85. Rorrer GL, Mullikin RK (1999) Modeling and simulation of a tubular recycle photobioreactor for macroalgal cell suspension cultures. Chem Eng Sci 54:3153–3162Google Scholar
  86. Ross O, Geider R (2009) New cell-based model of photosynthesis and photoacclimation: accumulation and mobilisation of energy reserves in phytoplankton. Mar Ecol 383:53–71Google Scholar
  87. Rudnicki P, Gao X, Kong B, Vigil RD (2017) A comparative study of photosynthetic unit models for algal growth rate and fluorescence prediction under light/dark cycles. Algal Res 24:227–236Google Scholar
  88. Sato T, Yamada D, Hirabayashi S (2010) Development of virtual photobioreactor for microalgae culture considering turbulent flow and flashing light effect. Energy Convers Manage 51:1196–1201Google Scholar
  89. Seo IH, Lee IB, Hwang HS, Hong SW, Bitog JP, Kwon KS, Lee CG, Kim ZH, Cuello JL (2012) Numerical investigation of a bubble-column photo-bioreactor design for microalgae cultivation. Biosyst Eng 113:229–241Google Scholar
  90. Smith JD, Neto AA, Cremaschi S (2013) Crunkleton DW (2013) CFD-based optimization of a flooded bed algae bioreactor. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:7181–7188Google Scholar
  91. Soman A, Shastri Y (2015) Optimization of novel photobioreactor design using computational fluid dynamics. Appl Energy 140:246–255Google Scholar
  92. Su ZF, Kang RJ, Shi SY, Cong W, Cai ZL (2010) Study on the destabilization mixing in the flat plate photobioreactor by means of CFD. Biomass Bioenergy 34:1879–1884Google Scholar
  93. Wang LL, Tao Y, Mao XZ (2014) A novel flat plate algal bioreactor with horizontal baffles: structural optimization and cultivation performance. Bioresour Technol 164:20–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Wang T, Wang J (2007) Numerical simulations of gas-liquid mass transfer in bubble columns with a CFD-PBM coupled model. Chem Eng Sci 62(24):7107–7118Google Scholar
  95. Wu LB, Li Z, Song YZ (2010) Hydrodynamic conditions in designed spiral photobioreactors. Bioresour Technol 101:298–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Wu X, Merchuk JC (2001) A model integrating fluid dynamics in photosynthesis and photoihibition processes. Chem Eng Sci 56:3527–3538Google Scholar
  97. Wu X, Merchuk JC (2002) Simulation of algae growth in a bench scale bubble column. Biotechnol Bioeng 80:156–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Wu X, Merchuk JC (2004) Simulation of algae growth in a bench-scale internal loop airlift reactor. Chem Eng Sci 59:2912–2999Google Scholar
  99. Xu B, Li P, Waller P (2014) Study of the flow mixing in a novel ARID raceway for algae production. Renew Energy 62:249–257Google Scholar
  100. Xu L, Liu R, Wang F, Liu C (2012) Development of a draft-tube airlift bioreactor for Botryococcus braunii with an optimized inner structure using computational fluid dynamics. Bioresour Technol 119:300–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Yoshimoto N, Sato T, Kondo Y (2005) Dynamic discrete model of flashing light effect in photosynthesis of microalgae. J Appl Phycol 17:207–214Google Scholar
  102. Zeng F, Huang J, Meng C, Zhu F, Chen J, Li Y (2016) Investigation on novel raceway pond with inclined paddle wheels through simulation and microalgae culture experiments. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 39:169–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhang D, Dechatiwongse P, Hellgardt K (2015a) Modelling light transmission, cyanobacterial growth kinetics and fluid dynamics in a laboratory scale multiphase photo-bioreactor for biological hydrogen production. Algal Res 8:99–107Google Scholar
  104. Zhang QH, Wu X, Xue SZ, Wang ZH, Yan CH, Cong W (2013) Hydrodynamic characteristics and microalgae cultivation in a novel flat-plate photobioreactor. Biotechnol Prog 29:127–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhang QH, Xue S, Yan C, Wu X, Wen S, Cong W (2015b) Installation of flow deflectors and wing baffles to reduce dead zone and enhance flashing light effect in an open raceway pond. Bioresour Technol 198:150–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Zhang T (2013) Dynamics of fluid and light intensity in mechanically stirred photobioreactor. J Biotechnol 168:107–116PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical & Biological EngineeringIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  2. 2.Division of Materials Sciences and EngineeringAmes LaboratoryAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations