Yield enhancement strategies of rare pharmaceutical metabolites from endophytes
Endophytes are barely untapped as vital sources in the medicine. They are microorganisms which mostly exist in plants. As they are exploited, it is accepted that endophytes can produce active metabolites that possess same function as their hosts such as taxol, podophyllotoxin, hypericin, and azadirachtin. These metabolites have been promising potential usefulness in safety and human health concerns. We are supposed to adopt measures to raise production for the low yield of metabolites. This paper summarizes the latest advances in various bioprocess optimization strategies. These techniques can overcome the limitations associated with rare pharmaceutical metabolite-producing endophytic fungi. These strategies include strain improvement, genome shuffling, medium optimization, fermentation conditions optimization, addition of specific factor, addition of solid sorbent, and co-culturing. It will enable endophytes to produce high and sustainable production of rare pharmaceutical metabolites.
KeywordsYield improvement Develop strategies Pharmaceutical metabolites Endophytes
This work was supported by Project of Shandong Province Key Research and Development Program (2017YYSP030). The authors would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human and animal studies
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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