Searching behavior of the parasitoid Tamarixia triozae mediated by the host plant and experience
- 108 Downloads
In the tritrophic system Solanaceae–Bactericera cockerelli Sulc (Hemiptera: Triozidae)—Tamarixia triozae Burks (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), we studied naïve and experienced T. triozae female attraction induced by the host plant (natal and alternate) and herbivory infestation. Naïve females are not attracted to healthy nor to infested plants (no choice). Early experience produces attraction to combined odors of plant and host, and the host plant induces preference when experience occurs on the natal host plants, but not when it occurs on alternate host plants. The results indicate that plants mediate female parasitoid response and that T. triozae needs to learn to find its hosts in order to optimize its host-searching behavior. This need to learn and the preference triggered by learning on the natal host plant suggest that it would be convenient to give T. triozae experience to improve its initial efficiency when it is used on an alternate cultivated host plant.
KeywordsBiological control Learning Chemical ecology Tritrophic interactions Tamarixia triozae Hymenoptera Eulophidae
The authors thank the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico) for the grant 328931 that funded the doctoral studies of the first author.
- Cerón-González C, Lomeli-Flores JR, Rodríguez-Leyva E, Torres-Ruíz A (2014) Fecundidad y alimentación de Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sobre el psílido de la papa Bactericera cockerelli. Rev Mex Cienc Agr 5:893–899Google Scholar
- Gingras D, Dutilleul P, Boivin G (2002) Modeling the impact of plant structure on host-finding behavior of parasitoids. Ecology 130:396–402Google Scholar
- Luna-Cruz A, Rodríguez-Leyva E, Lomeli-Flores JR, Ortega-Arenas LD, Bautista- Martinez N, Pineda S (2015) Toxicity and residual activity of insecticides against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). J Econ Entomol 108:2289–2295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Segonca C, Kranz A (2001) A modified, four-armed olfactometer for determining olfactory reactions of beneficial arthropods. J Pest Sci 74:127–132Google Scholar
- StatSoft, Inc, (2007) STATISTICA 8.0 http://www.statsoft.com/Products/STATISTICA-Features
- Vinson SB (1984) How parasitoids locate their hosts: A case of insect espionage. In: Lewis T (ed) Insect communication. Academic Press, London, pp 325–348Google Scholar