Effects of agricultural practices and fine-scale landscape factors on spiders and a pest insect in Japanese rice paddy ecosystems
We examined the effects of environmentally friendly (EF) farming and landscape factors on the abundances of major spider guilds and a rice pest, the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), in a Japanese rice paddy ecosystem. The abundances of all spider guilds increased by EF farming, whereas different spider guilds showed contrasting responses to the size of the forest within 200 m of the fields. The abundances of ground spiders and horizontal web weavers increased with increasing forest area, unlike small ground spiders, whose abundance decreased. The abundances of SBPH nymphs and adults decreased by EF farming but responded differently to landscape: nymphs decreased with increasing forest area, but adults did not. Further analysis indicated a potential negative relationship between web-weaving spiders and SBPH nymphs. Our findings suggest that the size of the forest adjacent to fields is an important determinant of spider guild composition and pest abundance.
KeywordsBiological control Erigoninae Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) Lycosidae Pachygnatha Tetragnatha
We thank Shu-ichi Sugiyama, Toshihiro Yoshida, Yoshiharu Yoshida, and Tamotsu Yoshida for allowing us to survey their rice paddy fields. This work was supported by grants from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries of Japan through a research project titled “Development of agricultural pest control system by the effective use of indigenous natural enemies” and by a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research (17K20074).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no financial or other types of conflicts of interest.
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