Goat milk attenuates mimetic aging related memory impairment via suppressing brain oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and modulating neurotrophic factors in d-galactose-induced aging model

  • Afifa Safdar
  • Rahimah Zakaria
  • Che Badariah Ab Aziz
  • Usman Rashid
  • Khairunnuur Fairuz AzmanEmail author
Research Article


One of the most significant hallmarks of aging is cognitive decline. d-galactose administration may impair memory and mimic the effects of natural aging. In this study, the efficiency of goat milk to protect against memory decline was tested. Fifty-two male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (i) control group, (ii) goat milk treated group, (iii) d-galactose treated group, and (iv) goat milk plus d-galactose treated group. Subcutaneous injections of d-galactose at 120 mg/kg and oral administrations of goat milk at 1 g/kg were chosen for the study. Goat milk and d-galactose were administered concomitantly for 6 weeks, while the control group received saline. After 6 weeks, novel object recognition and T-maze tests were performed to evaluate memory of rats. Following behavioral tests, the animals were sacrificed, and right brain homogenates were analyzed for levels of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and neurotrophic factors. The left brain hemisphere was used for histological study of prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. There was a significant memory impairment, an increase in oxidative stress and neurodegeneration and a reduction in antioxidant enzymes and neurotrophic factors levels in the brain of d-galactose treated rats compared to controls. Goat milk treatment attenuated memory impairment induced by d-galactose via suppressing oxidative stress and neuronal damage and increasing neurotrophic factors levels, thereby suggesting its potential role as a geroprotective food.


Dairy Aging Cognitive Neurodegenerative Oxidative stress Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Mimetic aging d-galactose 



Reactive oxygen species




Nerve-growth factor


Brain-derived neurotrophic factor


Cu–Zn-superoxide dismutase


Glutathione peroxidase




Dentate gyrus


Cornus ammonis


Medial prefrontal cortex



The authors would like to acknowledge School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia and short-term research grant of Universiti Sains Malaysia (304/PPSP/6315093) for the financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, School of Medical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Dental SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia

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