Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 11, pp 5897–5928 | Cite as

Hysteretic cyclic response of “SDOF-embedded foundation” systems rocking on sand: an experimental study

  • Mohammad Arabpanahan
  • Seyed Rasoul MirghaderiEmail author
  • Abdollah Hosseini
  • Abbas  Ghalandarzadeh
  • Amir  Parsa Sharif
Original Research


In the present study, the lateral response of systems including the “soil-embedded rocking foundation-SDOF superstructure” system was reported under slow horizontal cyclic loading tested in the 1 g condition. Accordingly, the effects of variation in the foundation embedment depth and superstructure slenderness ratio on the lateral performance of the systems were investigated. Based on the experimental results, the embedded rocking foundations could limit the moment transferred to the superstructure. However, the over-strength was apparent in the nonlinear performance. Moreover, it was evident that for the 1 g modelling, the increase in foundation embedment depth increased the difference between maximum experienced moment and the theoretical ultimate moment capacity attained from the existing theories. In addition, the stiffness ratio of embedded to shallow foundation was explored and compared to the theoretical expressions existing in the literature. Also, by concentrating on the energy dissipation of systems, the contribution of rocking and sliding mechanisms to the foundation lateral response was evaluated. With the increase in the foundation embedment depth, the contribution of sliding mechanism was significantly reduced, especially for the lower slenderness ratios. Finally, the influence of foundation embedment depth on the pinching index of behavioral response was discussed.


Embedded foundation Rocking behavior Moment capacity Energy dissipation Slow horizontal cyclic loading 



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Arabpanahan
    • 1
  • Seyed Rasoul Mirghaderi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abdollah Hosseini
    • 1
  • Abbas  Ghalandarzadeh
    • 1
  • Amir  Parsa Sharif
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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